Not only does it take time to get an accurate depression diagnosis, finding the right medication to treat depression can be a complicated, delicate process. Someone may have a serious medical problem, such as heart disease or liver or kidney disease, that could make some antidepressants unsafe. The antidepressant could be ineffective for you or the dose inadequate; there may not have been enough time to see an effect, or the side effects could be too bothersome -- leading to a failure of treatment.
How can antidepressants affect weight gain? Antidepressants are a commonly used drug in the United States, but some people find they gain or lose weight when using specific types. The link is not well understood, but some types, such as tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), seem more likely to lead to weight gain. Adjusting the dose or changing drugs may help. Read now
Pregnancy or breast-feeding. A decision to use antidepressants during pregnancy and breast-feeding is based on the balance between risks and benefits. Overall, the risk of birth defects and other problems for babies of mothers who take antidepressants during pregnancy is low. Still, certain antidepressants, such as paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva), may be discouraged during pregnancy. Work with your doctor to find the best way to manage your depression when you're expecting or planning on becoming pregnant.

In the 1950s and '60s, health care professionals divided depression into two types, endogenous and neurotic. Endogenous means that the depression comes from within the body, perhaps of genetic origin, or comes out of nowhere. Neurotic or reactive depression has a clear environmental precipitating factor, such as the death of a spouse, or other significant loss, such as the loss of a job. In the 1970s and '80s, the focus of attention shifted from the cause of depression to its effects on the afflicted people. That is to say, whatever the cause in a particular case, what are the symptoms and impaired functions that experts can agree make up a depressive illness? Although experts sometimes dispute these issues, most agree on the following:
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, involves serious shifts in moods, energy, thinking, and behavior. Because it looks so similar to depression when in the low phase, it is often overlooked and misdiagnosed. This can be a serious problem as taking antidepressants for bipolar depression can actually make the condition worse. If you’ve ever gone through phases where you experienced excessive feelings of euphoria, a decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive behavior, consider getting evaluated for bipolar disorder.
Prioritize. Depression is frequently an overwhelming situation. At the same time that you are depressed and suffering, life demands do not stop. One way to reduce the amount of stress you experience is to prioritize the demands you are facing and then to attend to only the most pressing tasks. Enlist the help of other family members or friends to get the rest of your responsibilities done, or simply let them ride for a while. For instance, if you normally cook the evening meal for your family after returning home from a full day's work, perhaps you can figure out an easier way to get dinner on the table for a while (working to support the family is a higher priority than making sure that every meal the family eats is nicely balanced and well-presented).
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is one form of psychotherapy that has been shown to be successful in treating depression and anxiety disorders. CBT combines the fundamental concepts of behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy. The term “cognitive” refers to our thought process and reflects what we think, believe and perceive. Put together, CBT focuses on our behaviors and thoughts and how they are contributing to our current symptoms and difficulties.
The SSRI antidepressants can cause sexual dysfunction. SSRIs reportedly decrease sex drive (libido) in both men and women. SSRIs reportedly cause inability to achieve orgasm or delay in achieving orgasm (anorgasmia) in women and difficulty with ejaculation (delay in ejaculating or loss of ability to ejaculate) and erections in men. Sexual dysfunction with SSRIs is common though the exact incidence is unknown. Newer SSRIs like vortioxetine and vilazodone have little to no negative impact on sexual functioning. Furthermore, patients have reported sexual side effects with the use of other antidepressant classes such a MAOIs, TCAs, and dual-action antidepressants.
Self-help—For mild depression, or when moderate or severe depression begins to improve with other treatments, there are some things you can do on your own to help keep you feeling better. Regular exercise, eating well, managing stress, spending time with friends and family, spirituality, and monitoring your use of alcohol and other drugs can help keep depression from getting worse or coming back. Talking to your doctor, asking questions, and feeling in charge of your own health are also very important. Always talk to your doctor about what you’re doing on your own.
Life events and changes that may precipitate depressed mood include (but are not limited to): childbirth, menopause, financial difficulties, unemployment, stress (such as from work, education, family, living conditions etc.), a medical diagnosis (cancer, HIV, etc.), bullying, loss of a loved one, natural disasters, social isolation, rape, relationship troubles, jealousy, separation, and catastrophic injury.[6][7][8] Adolescents may be especially prone to experiencing depressed mood following social rejection, peer pressure, or bullying.[9]
Nurture yourself with good nutrition. Depression can affect appetite. One person may not feel like eating at all, but another might overeat. If depression has affected your eating, you'll need to be extra mindful of getting the right nourishment. Proper nutrition can influence a person's mood and energy. So eat plenty of fruits and vegetables and get regular meals (even if you don't feel hungry, try to eat something light, like a piece of fruit, to keep you going).
McLean Hospital offers comprehensive mental health services to help children and adults living with mood disorders such as depression and anxiety. We utilize evidence-based treatment and therapy models informed by cutting-edge research conducted at McLean and around the world. By incorporating various approaches, treatment can be customized for each individual to help ensure recovery.
Additionally, the symptoms must last for two or more weeks and cause significant disruption of life functions. But to be diagnosed with dysthymia, a person need only have two of the recognized diagnostic symptoms, one of which is a mood that is persistently dark or gloomy, and the symptoms must be present on most days for at least two years. It is possible to have periods of time that are “symptom free,” but the break cannot last longer than two months.
Stay Socially Engaged. The core symptoms of depression push people to stop participating with others socially and emotionally and motivate them to isolate. It is important to work to resist these urges to isolate as best you can. Let your family, friends and associates help you. Accept invitations to social events and maintain your typical social schedule as best you can even if you are not enjoying your participation as much as you used to. Staying socially engaged provides you with social support, offers you a distraction from the repetitive negative ruminations you are otherwise going to be prone to experiencing, may offer some pleasure even if that feeling is fleeting for a while, and can provide you with opportunities for reality testing (so that you don't take your depressive ideas about how worthless you are too seriously).
Ketamine is generally safe and has few side effects — besides that dissociative “high” thing, which can distress some people. Researchers still don’t know how well it works, exactly what the dose should be, and how long people ought to be treated with it. Like other antidepressants, how it works isn’t entirely clear either — it has effects on many chemical of our body’s signaling systems. But because it might only take a few treatments over a few weeks to see the same kinds of results that people see with today’s antidepressant pills — and faster — it’s a treatment that might help a lot of people.
Depressed mood may not require professional treatment, and may be a normal temporary reaction to life events, a symptom of some medical condition, or a side effect of some drugs or medical treatments. A prolonged depressed mood, especially in combination with other symptoms, may lead to a diagnosis of a psychiatric or medical condition which may benefit from treatment. The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 2009 guidelines indicate that antidepressants should not be routinely used for the initial treatment of mild depression, because the risk-benefit ratio is poor.[36] Physical activity can have a protective effect against the emergence of depression.[37]

A person whose primary problem is depression, rather than anxiety, generally doesn't show the same fear and uncertainty that people do with anxiety disorders. Depressed people are not so preoccupied with worrying about what might happen to them in the future. They think they already know what will happen, and they believe it will be bad, the same bad stuff that's happening to them now. The key symptoms of depression include:
The definition of a genetic disease is a disorder or condition caused by abnormalities in a person's genome. Some types of genetic inheritance include single inheritance, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Marfan syndrome, and hemochromatosis. Other types of genetic diseases include multifactorial inheritance. Still other types of genetic diseases include chromosome abnormalities (for example, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome), and mitochondrial inheritance (for example, epilepsy and dementia).
Programs that use mental health professionals to teach thinking skills (cognitive techniques) that assist in coping with stress seem to be effective in preventing depression. Key aspects in the prevention of postpartum depression include helping new mothers decrease those specific aspects of their lives that may contribute to depression, like having little social support and poor adjustment to their marriage or other domestic union. Engaging in religious or spiritual practices can often prevent depression, thought to be the result of decreasing stress, increasing a sense of hope, and providing a sense of community. On the other hand, people who feel they are unable to live up to the standards set by their family, societal, religious, or spiritual practices may feel a sense of guilt that becomes a risk factor for depression.
When you’re depressed, just getting out of bed can seem like a daunting task, let alone working out! But exercise is a powerful depression fighter—and one of the most important tools in your recovery arsenal. Research shows that regular exercise can be as effective as medication for relieving depression symptoms. It also helps prevent relapse once you’re well.
Treatment for anxiety disorders and depression needs to be administered and managed by a psychiatrist, Connolly says. "It's really crucial for people with both [anxiety and depression] to have a good assessment to rule out bipolar disorder," she says. Bipolar disorder, a condition in which emotions can swing from very low to very high levels of mania and depression, is treated much differently than anxiety disorder with depression.
There are a range of ways to deal with depression, and often they are best used in conjunction with each other. The primary medical options are Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), antidepressant medication, and in some severe cases, Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT). Education and coping strategies are also important when learning to manage your depression.
The connection between the amount of alcohol intake, level of depressed mood and how it affects the risks of experiencing consequences from alcoholism were studied in a research done on college students. The study used 4 latent, distinct profiles of different alcohol intake and level of depression; Mild or Moderate Depression, and Heavy or Severe Drinkers. Other indicators consisting of social factors and individual behaviors were also taken into consideration in the research. Results showed that the level of depression as an emotion negatively affected the amount of risky behavior and consequence from drinking, while having an inverse relationship with protective behavioral strategies, which are behavioral actions taken by oneself for protection from the relative harm of alcohol intake. Having an elevated level of depressed mood does therefore lead to greater consequences from drinking.[32]
Talk therapy involves discussing your problems and how you feel with a trained therapist. Your therapist can help you detect patterns of thought or behavior that contribute to your depression. You may be given homework, such as tracking your moods or writing in journals. This will help you to continue your treatment outside of appointments. Your therapist can also teach you exercises to reduce stress and anxiety, and help you understand your illness.
Measures of depression as an emotional disorder include, but are not limited to: Beck Depression Inventory-11 and the 9-item depression scale in the Patient Health Questionnaire. Both of these measures are psychological tests that asks on personal questions of the participant, and have mostly been used to measure the severity of depression. Several studies, however, have used these measures to also determine healthy individuals who are not suffering from depression as a mental disorder, but as an occasional mood disorder. This is substantiated by the fact that depression as an emotional disorder displays similar symptoms to minimal depression and low levels of mental disorders such as Major Depressive Disorder, thus researchers were able to use the same measure interchangeably. In terms of the scale, participants scoring between 0-13 and 0-4 respectively were considered healthy individuals.[27] Another measure of depressed mood would be the IWP multi-affect indicator.[28] It is a psychological test that indicates various emotions, such as enthusiasm and depression, and asks for the degree of the emotions that the participants have felt in the past week. There are studies that have used lesser items from the IWP Multi-affect Indicator which was then scaled down to daily levels to measure the daily levels of depression as a emotional disorder.[29]
Depressive disorders are mood disorders that have been with mankind since the beginning of recorded history. In the Bible, King David, as well as Job, suffered from this affliction. Hippocrates referred to depression as melancholia, which literally means black bile. Black bile, along with blood, phlegm, and yellow bile were the four humors (fluids) that described the basic medical physiology theory of that time. Literature and the arts have portrayed depression, also referred to as clinical depression, for hundreds of years, but what do we mean today when we refer to a depressive disorder? In the 19th century, people thought of depression as an inherited weakness of temperament. In the first half of the 20th century, Freud linked the development of depression to guilt and conflict. John Cheever, the author and a modern sufferer of depressive disorder, wrote of conflict and experiences with his parents as influencing his becoming clinically depressed.
When you’re suffering from deep, disabling depression, the idea that a pill can give you back your life—and sense of hope—is incredibly appealing. But are antidepressants always the best treatment option? What are the potential side effects and safety concerns? And are there any truly effective non-drug alternatives? These are some of the important questions to think about when considering antidepressant treatment. Learning about what antidepressants can (and can’t) do will enable you to weigh the benefits against the risks, make a more informed decision, and find the depression treatment that’s right for you.
Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with rickets, cancer, cardiovascular disease, severe asthma in children and cognitive impairment in older adults. Causes include not ingesting enough of the vitamin over time, having limited exposure to sunlight, having dark skin, and obesity. Symptoms include bone pain and muscle weakness. Treatment for vitamin D deficiency involves obtaining more vitamin D through supplements, diet, or exposure to sunlight.
Additionally, the symptoms must last for two or more weeks and cause significant disruption of life functions. But to be diagnosed with dysthymia, a person need only have two of the recognized diagnostic symptoms, one of which is a mood that is persistently dark or gloomy, and the symptoms must be present on most days for at least two years. It is possible to have periods of time that are “symptom free,” but the break cannot last longer than two months.
There is no single known cause of depression. Rather, it likely results from a combination of genetic, biologic, environmental, and psychological factors. Major negative experiences—trauma, loss of a loved one, a difficult relationship, or any stressful situation that overwhelms the ability to cope—may trigger a depressive episode. Subsequent depressive episodes may occur with or without an obvious trigger. Depression is not an inherent consequence of negative life events; research increasingly suggests that it is only when such events set in motion excessive rumination and negative thought patterns, especially about oneself, that mood enters a downward spiral.
Many people living with high-functioning anxiety and depression are described as Type-A personalities or overachievers. They often excel at work or appear to be “super mom/dad” and seem to have it all under control. Other people may notice signs of high-functioning anxiety and depression but characterize the behaviors as “anal retentive” quirks or bad habits. And, many times, signs and symptoms of high-functioning depression and anxiety that others observe are given positive attributes, rather than being seen for what they are. For instance, anxiety and worry may be expressed as dwelling on minor details and viewed as perfectionism. What observers generally do not see are the private struggles with stress, sleeplessness, digestive issues, self-criticism, or feelings of sadness and gloom that had to be overcome to attain achievements.
Americans are obsessed with happiness, yet we are increasingly depressed: Some 15 million Americans battle the disorder, and increasing numbers of them are young people. Mental anguish is hard on your health. People suffering from depression have three times the risk of experiencing a cardiac event. In fact, depression affects the entire body. It weakens the immune system, increasing susceptibility to viral infections and, over time, possibly even some kinds of cancer—a strong argument for early treatment of depression. It interferes with sleep, adding to feelings of lethargy, compounding problems of focus and concentration, and generally undermining health. Those suffering from depression also experience higher rates of diabetes and osteoporosis. Sometimes depression manifests as a persistent low mood, a condition known as dysthymia. It is usually marked by years-long periods of low energy, low self-esteem, and little ability to experience pleasure.
Generally, people who have anxiety or depression disorders display significant disruptions in their ability to work, go to school, or participate in social functions. But with high-functioning anxiety and depression, although those disruptions are not as apparent, they still can occur. The signs and symptoms are often overlooked, because sufferers are able to manage daily activities, but they are suffering in silence. To the outside world, people living with high-functioning anxiety and depression seem fine and often excel at accomplishing tasks and goals.
Symptoms of depression and anxiety often co-occur in certain disorders. In fact, according to the National Institute of Mental Health, major depression often accompanies panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. While depression and anxiety have distinct clinical features, there is some overlap of symptoms. For example, in both depression and anxiety, irritability, decreased concentration and impaired sleep are common.
Several types of psychotherapy (also called “talk therapy” or, in a less specific form, counseling) can help people with depression. Examples of evidence-based approaches specific to the treatment of depression include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy (IPT), and problem-solving therapy. More information on psychotherapy is available on the NIMH website and in the NIMH publication Depression: What You Need to Know.
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