Depressive signs and symptoms not only include negative thoughts, moods, and behaviors but also by specific changes in bodily functions (for example, excessive crying spells, body aches, low energy or libido, as well as problems with eating, weight, or sleeping). Neurovegetative signs are the changes in functioning associated with clinical depression. This means that the nervous system changes in the brain are thought to cause many physical symptoms that result in a decreased or increased activity level and other problems with functioning.
No matter how hopeless things may feel today, people can get better with treatment — and most do. The key to successful treatment is usually dependent upon the person recognizing there’s a problem, seeking out treatment for it, and then following the treatment plan agreed to. This can be far more challenging for someone who’s depressed than it sounds, and patience is a core necessity when starting treatment.
The most common symptoms of anxiety are fear and worry. Anxiety can also cause restlessness, and difficulty concentrating and sleeping. Sometimes people will express anxiety by being irritable, tired or even stubborn. Anxiety can cause physical symptoms like muscle tension, shortness of breath or even feelings of panic. Nearly everyone feels anxiety when faced with a bad physical problem. Anxiety becomes a concern when these feelings are very strong and interfere with important tasks in life.
Depression generally takes one of two major forms. Unipolar depression is what most people mean when they talk about depression: an unremitting state of sadness, apathy, or hopelessness, and loss of energy. It is sometimes called major depression. Bipolar depression, or bipolar disorder, is a condition marked by periods of depression and periods of high-energy mania; people swing between the two poles of mood states, sometimes over the course of days, sometimes over years, often with stable periods in between. 
A very small number of people have had heart problems, epileptic fits or liver damage while taking antidepressants. It is believed that these were rare side effects of antidepressants. Various studies suggest that teenagers consider suicide more often when taking SSRIs or SSNRIs and also actually attempt to take their own lives more often. Teenagers should see their doctor or therapist more regularly at the beginning of treatment so that any risk of suicide can be identified early on.

In the practice of evidence-based medicine, it’s considered less wise to prescribe treatments that rely too heavily on hypothetical explanations for how they might work in the body. Instead, we should rely on high-quality, low-bias research that proves which treatments work best. In that light, take the Botox research — and for that matter, Celebrex and ketamine too — with a few grains of salt. The Botox review looked at a very small number of patients, and the researchers were looking at their own original clinical trials. A couple of them have ties to Botox’s maker, Allergan. All three approaches need more research on benefits and harms.

There are a lot of different medications for depression. But it's difficult to predict how well a particular medication will help an individual. Because of this, doctors often first suggest taking a drug that they consider to be effective and relatively well tolerated. If it doesn't help as much as expected, it's possible to switch to a different medication. Sometimes a number of different drugs have to be tried out before you find one that works.
As of today, there is no laboratory test, blood test, or X-ray that can diagnose a mental disorder. Even the powerful CT, MRI, SPECT, and PET scans, which can help diagnose other neurological disorders such as stroke or brain tumors, cannot detect the subtle and complex brain changes in psychiatric illness. However, these techniques are currently useful ruling out the presence of a number of physical disorders and in research on mental health and perhaps in the future they will be useful for the diagnosis of depression, as well.
If the depressed person is taking more than one medication for depression or medications for any other medical problem, each of the patient's doctors should be aware of the other prescriptions. Many of these medications clear from the body (metabolized) in the liver. This means that the multiple treatments can interact competitively with the liver's biochemical clearing systems. Therefore, the actual blood levels of the medications may be higher or lower than would be expected from the dosage. This information is especially important if the patient is taking anticoagulants (blood thinners), anticonvulsants (seizure medications), or heart medications, such as digitalis (Crystodigin). Although multiple medications do not necessarily pose a problem, all of the patient's doctors may need to be in close contact to adjust dosages accordingly.
DISCLAIMER: The information contained herein should NOT be used as a substitute for the advice of an appropriately qualified and licensed physician or other healthcare provider. This article mentions drugs that were FDA-approved and available at the time of publication and may not include all possible drug interactions or all FDA warnings or alerts. The author of this page explicitly does not endorse this drug or any specific treatment method. If you have health questions or concerns about interactions, please check with your physician or go to the FDA site for a comprehensive list of warnings.
It is important to communicate regularly with your doctor when you are taking an antidepressant, especially if you are prescribed any other medications. Keep track of your symptoms so that they can find the best medication for your depression, and also keep track of any side effects you experience. If you’re having trouble finding a medication that works, drug-genetic testing can help your doctor determine appropriate options. If you become pregnant or are breastfeeding, be sure to ask what medication is safest.
The second most important way to help someone with depression is to offer emotional support. This support involves understanding, patience, affection, and encouragement to the depression sufferer. Engage the depressed person in conversation and listen carefully. Do not disparage feelings expressed, but point out realities and offer hope. Do not ignore remarks about suicide. Always take them seriously and report them to the depressed person's therapist.
In comparison to men, women tend to develop depression at an earlier age and have depressive episodes that last longer and tend to recur more often. Women may more often have a seasonal pattern to depression, as well as symptoms of atypical depression (for example, eating or sleeping too much, carbohydrate craving, weight gain, a heavy feeling in the arms and legs, mood worsening in the evenings, and trouble getting to sleep). Also, women with depression more often have anxiety, eating disorders, and dependent personality symptoms compared to men.
Other health conditions. Some antidepressants may cause problems if you have certain mental or physical health conditions. On the other hand, certain antidepressants may help treat other physical or mental health conditions along with depression. For example, bupropion (Wellbutrin, Aplenzin, Forfivo XL) may help relieve symptoms of both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Other examples include using duloxetine (Cymbalta) to help with pain symptoms or fibromyalgia, or using amitriptyline to prevent migraines.
Doctors often use one of the SSRIs initially because of their lower severity of side effects compared to the other classes of antidepressants. It's possible to further minimize side effects of SSRI medications by starting them at low doses and gradually increasing the doses to achieve full therapeutic effects. For those patients who do not respond after taking a SSRI at full doses for six to eight weeks, doctors often switch to a different SSRI or another class of antidepressants. For patients whose depression failed to respond to full doses of one or two SSRIs or whom could not tolerate those medications, doctors will usually then try medications from another class of antidepressants. Some doctors believe that antidepressants with dual action (action on both serotonin and norepinephrine), such as duloxetine (Cymbalta), (Cymbalta), mirtazapine (Remeron), venlafaxine (Effexor), desvenlafaxine (Pristiq), and levomilnacipran (Fetzima), may be effective in treating patients with severe depression that is treatment resistant. Other options include bupropion (Wellbutrin, Wellbutrin SR, Wellbutrin XL, Zyban), which has action on dopamine (another neurotransmitter).
The doctor usually asks about alcohol and drug use and whether the patient has had thoughts about death or suicide. Further, the history often includes questions about whether other family members have had a depressive illness, and if treated, what treatments they received and which were effective. Professionals are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of exploring potential cultural differences in how people with depression experience, understand, and express depression in order to appropriately assess and treat this condition.
Very often, a combination of genetic, psychological, and environmental factors is involved in the onset of a depressive disorder. Stressors that contribute to the development of depression sometimes affect some groups more than others. For example, minority groups who more often feel impacted by discrimination are disproportionately represented. Socioeconomically disadvantaged groups have higher rates of depression compared to their advantaged counterparts. Immigrants to the United States may be more vulnerable to developing depression, particularly when isolated by language.
When your doctor recommends an antidepressant to fight depression—such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)—it's about more than just boosting your mood. Depression has many potential physical effects. "Most people aren't aware that depression can lead to other health problems," says Dr. Amanda Hernandez, a geriatrician at Harvard-affiliated Massachusetts General Hospital.

Express yourself. With depression, a person's creativity and sense of fun may seem blocked. Exercise your imagination (painting, drawing, doodling, sewing, writing, dancing, composing music, etc.) and you not only get those creative juices flowing, you also loosen up some positive emotions. Take time to play with a friend or a pet, or do something fun for yourself. Find something to laugh about — a funny movie, perhaps. Laughter helps lighten your mood.

Teenagers go through various phases. There’s often a lot of mood swings and emotional episodes that comes with adolescence, and it can be hard to know when their behavior is a part of growing up and when it’s more serious. The first step towards helping your child battle depression is to learn how to spot it. Become familiar with the warning signs. 
Not only does it take time to get an accurate depression diagnosis, finding the right medication to treat depression can be a complicated, delicate process. Someone may have a serious medical problem, such as heart disease or liver or kidney disease, that could make some antidepressants unsafe. The antidepressant could be ineffective for you or the dose inadequate; there may not have been enough time to see an effect, or the side effects could be too bothersome -- leading to a failure of treatment.
Depression is a common and debilitating mood disorder. More than just sadness in response to life’s struggles and setbacks, depression changes how you think, feel, and function in daily activities. It can interfere with your ability to work, study, eat, sleep, and enjoy life. The feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, and worthlessness can be intense and unrelenting, with little, if any, relief.

Americans are obsessed with happiness, yet we are increasingly depressed: Some 15 million Americans battle the disorder, and increasing numbers of them are young people. Mental anguish is hard on your health. People suffering from depression have three times the risk of experiencing a cardiac event. In fact, depression affects the entire body. It weakens the immune system, increasing susceptibility to viral infections and, over time, possibly even some kinds of cancer—a strong argument for early treatment of depression. It interferes with sleep, adding to feelings of lethargy, compounding problems of focus and concentration, and generally undermining health. Those suffering from depression also experience higher rates of diabetes and osteoporosis. Sometimes depression manifests as a persistent low mood, a condition known as dysthymia. It is usually marked by years-long periods of low energy, low self-esteem, and little ability to experience pleasure.
The next time you're feeling terrible about yourself, use logic as a natural depression treatment. You might feel like no one likes you, but is there real evidence for that? You might feel like the most worthless person on the planet, but is that really likely? It takes practice, but in time you can beat back those negative thoughts before they get out of control.
ECT involves the application of a brief electric current to carefully selected sites on the scalp. These electric currents, which are administered by a psychiatrist and anaesthetist, produce a minor seizure in the brain. Prior to the procedure, the person is given a short-acting general anaesthetic and a muscle relaxant to reduce awareness of the procedure and to prevent a physical seizure.
Treatment for anxiety disorders and depression needs to be administered and managed by a psychiatrist, Connolly says. "It's really crucial for people with both [anxiety and depression] to have a good assessment to rule out bipolar disorder," she says. Bipolar disorder, a condition in which emotions can swing from very low to very high levels of mania and depression, is treated much differently than anxiety disorder with depression.

For some people, the reduced daylight hours of winter lead to a form of depression known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD). SAD can make you feel like a completely different person to who you are in the summer: hopeless, sad, tense, or stressed, with no interest in friends or activities you normally love. No matter how hopeless you feel, though, there are plenty of things you can do to keep your mood stable throughout the year.

It is important to remember that many of these symptoms can occur with illnesses such as brain injury or stroke or even less serious problems like a cold or flu, but may not indicate depression. Even if you have trouble sleeping, lack of appetite and problems concentrating, there is no reason to be concerned about a separate mental health condition unless you also feel sad most of the time or rarely find enjoyment in life.


Not to be disrespectful of the good work you are providing here, but please don't say that medications help with the relief of depression and anxiety. It simply is not a true statement. These drugs cause severe damage to the human brain, nervous system, organs and are neurotoxins. I was severely damaged by them and now have a form of TBI caused by these drugs. In the online forums I'm in we call this a chemical brain injury. Psych meds should never be used to treat mental health disorders. There are alternative holistic treatments out there. The statement made that meds are not addictive is incorrect. Please do in depth research outside of mainstream websites. Contact me if you need valid true information about medications. Please don't go down the rabbit hole of psych meds. Please. They will cause you severe harm as they did me.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors or MAOIs were the first class of antidepressants to be developed. They fell out of favor because of concerns about interactions with certain foods and numerous drug interactions. MAOIs elevate the levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine by inhibiting an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. Monoamine oxidase breaks down norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. When monoamine oxidase is inhibited, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine are not broken down, increasing the concentration of all three neurotransmitters in the brain.


It's also common for people who are having a difficult time with an anxiety disorder to feel depressed as a result of the way anxiety is interfering with their lives. It's my experience that most patients who experience this will find that their depression lifts naturally as a result of doing better with anxiety, and no special treatment for the depression is necessary.
Certain brain chemicals called neurotransmitters are associated with depression — particularly serotonin (ser-o-TOE-nin), norepinephrine (nor-ep-ih-NEF-rin) and dopamine (DOE-puh-meen). Most antidepressants relieve depression by affecting these neurotransmitters. Each type (class) of antidepressant affects these neurotransmitters in slightly different ways.
If you think you may have depression, describe your symptoms to a doctor. Or, if you’re not able to do that, pull out your cell phone and type “depression” or “clinical depression” into Google; you’ll be able to take a clinically validated depression test, known as the PHQ-9 patient health questionnaire, immediately and see if your scores show that you have depression.
Nurture yourself with good nutrition. Depression can affect appetite. One person may not feel like eating at all, but another might overeat. If depression has affected your eating, you'll need to be extra mindful of getting the right nourishment. Proper nutrition can influence a person's mood and energy. So eat plenty of fruits and vegetables and get regular meals (even if you don't feel hungry, try to eat something light, like a piece of fruit, to keep you going).
Antidepressants take time – usually 2 to 4 weeks – to work, and often, symptoms such as sleep, appetite, and concentration problems improve before mood lifts, so it is important to give medication a chance before reaching a conclusion about its effectiveness. If you begin taking antidepressants, do not stop taking them without the help of a doctor. Sometimes people taking antidepressants feel better and then stop taking the medication on their own, and the depression returns. When you and your doctor have decided it is time to stop the medication, usually after a course of 6 to 12 months, the doctor will help you slowly and safely decrease your dose. Stopping them abruptly can cause withdrawal symptoms.
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