Total openness is important. You should talk to your doctor about all of your symptoms, important milestones in your life and any history of abuse or trauma. Also tell your doctor about past history of depression or other emotional symptoms in yourself or family members, medical history, medications you are taking — prescribed or over-the-counter, how depression has affected your daily life and whether you ever think about suicide. More
Although depressive disorder can be a devastating illness, it often responds to treatment. The key is to get a specific evaluation and treatment plan. Safety planning is important for individuals who have suicidal thoughts. After an assessment rules out medical and other possible causes, a patient-centered treatment plans can include any or a combination of the following:
Another type of depression is related to changes in the length of days or seasonality. This type of depression is called Seasonal affective disorder (SAD). People with SAD suffer the symptoms of a Major Depressive Disorder only during a specific time of year, usually winter. This appears to be related to the shorter days of winter, and the lack of sunlight in many parts of the country.
If you tend to worry a lot, even when there’s no reason, you may have anxiety. It may be something you are so used to that you may think it’s just “how you are.” Common worries include health, money, family, or work. While everyone worries about these things once in a while, if you always expect the worst, it can get in the way of living a normal life. Though researchers are still investigating the causes of anxiety, they have identified the areas of the brain responsible for fear and anxiety and are using proven studies to increase knowledge in this field in an effort to create improved treatments for anxiety and related disorders.
Pregnancy or breast-feeding. A decision to use antidepressants during pregnancy and breast-feeding is based on the balance between risks and benefits. Overall, the risk of birth defects and other problems for babies of mothers who take antidepressants during pregnancy is low. Still, certain antidepressants, such as paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva), may be discouraged during pregnancy. Work with your doctor to find the best way to manage your depression when you're expecting or planning on becoming pregnant.
Depression affects your brain, so drugs that work in your brain may prove beneficial. Common antidepressants may help ease your symptoms, but there are many other options as well. Each drug used to treat depression works by balancing certain chemicals in your brain called neurotransmitters. These drugs work in slightly different ways to ease your depression symptoms.
Very often, a combination of genetic, psychological, and environmental factors is involved in the onset of a depressive disorder. Stressors that contribute to the development of depression sometimes affect some groups more than others. For example, minority groups who more often feel impacted by discrimination are disproportionately represented. Socioeconomically disadvantaged groups have higher rates of depression compared to their advantaged counterparts. Immigrants to the United States may be more vulnerable to developing depression, particularly when isolated by language.
Social abuse, such as bullying, are defined as actions of singling out and causing harm on vulnerable individuals. In order to capture a day-to-day observation of the relationship between the damaging effects of social abuse, the victim’s mental health and depressive mood, a study was conducted on whether individuals would have a higher level of depressed mood when exposed to daily acts of negative behavior. The result concluded that being exposed daily to abusive behaviors such as bullying has a positive relationship to depressed mood on the same day.

Another type of depression is related to changes in the length of days or seasonality. This type of depression is called Seasonal affective disorder (SAD). People with SAD suffer the symptoms of a Major Depressive Disorder only during a specific time of year, usually winter. This appears to be related to the shorter days of winter, and the lack of sunlight in many parts of the country.


Stressful life events play a part in the onset or relapse of depression. Ongoing conflicts with others can take their toll on our well-being, as can other social and environmental stressors such as financial difficulties, retirement, unemployment, childbirth, loneliness, or loss of someone or something important. In vulnerable people, these unpleasant life events may be enough to cause or worsen a depressive illness.
A type of mild to severe depression that typically sets in as the hours of daylight wane in the fall, seasonal affective disorder (SAD) afflicts as many as 6 percent of Americans. Women are particularly at risk, experiencing SAD four times more often than men, as are people who have a relative with depression. People who live far from the equator tend to experience SAD in greater numbers — 9 percent of Alaskans versus 1 percent of Floridians, according to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).
If the depressed person is taking more than one medication for depression or medications for any other medical problem, each of the patient's doctors should be aware of the other prescriptions. Many of these medications clear from the body (metabolized) in the liver. This means that the multiple treatments can interact competitively with the liver's biochemical clearing systems. Therefore, the actual blood levels of the medications may be higher or lower than would be expected from the dosage. This information is especially important if the patient is taking anticoagulants (blood thinners), anticonvulsants (seizure medications), or heart medications, such as digitalis (Crystodigin). Although multiple medications do not necessarily pose a problem, all of the patient's doctors may need to be in close contact to adjust dosages accordingly.
Sadness that lasts a long time and a loss of enjoyment in almost all activities are the central features of depression. Sadness is a symptom, but not the same thing as depression. Everyone is sad sometimes. The type of sadness that occurs in depression lasts all day or most of the day, every day for a long time (at least two weeks). Other symptoms include feelings of worthlessness or guilt, suicidal thoughts, loss of concentration, decreased energy, slowed thinking and movement, appetite loss and sleep problems.
Rebecca, age 57, struggled with depression and had a few wake-up calls as a smoker. She felt depressed and smoked cigarettes to help her cope with her feelings. The more Rebecca smoked, the harder it seemed to quit. Rebecca finally quit smoking after getting care for her depression and realizing that she had to take care of her own health. She now leads a new, smokefree life.

Even though clinical depression tends to occur in episodes, most people who experience one such episode will eventually have another one. Also, it seems that any subsequent episodes of depression are more easily triggered than the first one. However, most depression sufferers recover from the episode. In fact, individuals who have mild depression and receive treatment with medication tend to respond equally as well to sugar pill (placebo). Those with more severe depression seem to be less likely to get better when taking placebo versus taking antidepressant medication. Other encouraging information is that research shows that even people from teenage through adulthood who do not improve when treated with a first medication trial can improve when switched to another medication or given another medication in addition to psychotherapy. For individuals who experience thoughts of suicide, preventing access to firearms and other highly lethal means of committing suicide are important ways to improve their safety and that of those around them.


Educate Yourself. Depression is a type of illness, and illnesses tend to make people feel out of control. One way to regain a sense of control is to educate yourself about your illness. You can do this by talking with your doctors and therapists, by listening to what other people who have had depression have to say about it, and by reading as much as you can. The more you know about what depression is and how it may be treated, the better chance you have of figuring out the combination of treatments and techniques that will help you feel better. There are literally thousands of self-help books out there for depression. Some of them are even worth reading. We provide a list of such books we consider worthwhile at the end of this document.
Atypical antidepressants. These medications don't fit neatly into any of the other antidepressant categories. They include trazodone, mirtazapine (Remeron), vortioxetine (Trintellix), vilazodone (Viibryd) and bupropion (Wellbutrin, Aplenzin, Forfivo XL). Bupropion is one of the few antidepressants not frequently associated with sexual side effects.
Family and friends can help! Since depression can make the affected person feel exhausted and helpless, he or she will want and probably need help from others. However, people who have never had a depressive disorder may not fully understand its effects. Although unintentional, friends and loved ones may unknowingly say and do things that may be hurtful to the depressed person. If you are struggling with depression, it may help to share the information in this article with those you most care about so they can better understand and help you.
When you’re suffering from deep, disabling depression, the idea that a pill can give you back your life—and sense of hope—is incredibly appealing. But are antidepressants always the best treatment option? What are the potential side effects and safety concerns? And are there any truly effective non-drug alternatives? These are some of the important questions to think about when considering antidepressant treatment. Learning about what antidepressants can (and can’t) do will enable you to weigh the benefits against the risks, make a more informed decision, and find the depression treatment that’s right for you.
Sometimes it is best to both take medication and see a therapist. Medications can be helpful in many cases. Sometimes people are afraid of acting and thinking strangely, or becoming dependent on drugs used to treat anxiety and depression. When these medications are taken as prescribed by a doctor, bad side effects can be reduced or eliminated and there is little risk of becoming addicted to them. Remember that these medications are not the same as street drugs used to get high.

Patients with generalized anxiety disorder can’t control their constant worry. They worry about life events that may never even happen. They are “worry warts” who often expect the worst possible outcome of every situation. Physical symptoms such as fatigue, trouble concentrating, and having tense muscles are common in these patients. Phobias are fears of specific objects or places, such as an intense fear of social interactions that causes the patient to avoid most social situations (social phobia). Physicians and mental health professionals assess these symptoms through interviews, surveys, and observing patient behavior.
Research utilizing brain-imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), shows that the brains of people who have depression look different than those of people without depression. The parts of the brain responsible for regulating mood, thinking, sleep, appetite, and behavior appear to function abnormally. It is not clear which changes seen in the brain may be the cause of depression and which ones the effect.
For full recovery from a mood disorder, regardless of whether there is a precipitating factor or it seems to come out of the blue, treatments with medication, phototherapy and/or brain stimulation therapies, like electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), as well as psychotherapy and participation in support groups are often necessary.
Many forms of psychotherapy are effective at helping depressed individuals, including some short-term (10-20 weeks) therapies. Talking therapies (psychotherapies) help patients gain insight into their problems and resolve them through verbal give-and-take with the therapist. Behavioral therapists help patients learn how to obtain more satisfaction and rewards through their own actions. These therapists conduct behavior therapy to help patients to unlearn the behavioral patterns that may contribute to their depression.
Krill oil may have benefits, but for now it's best to rely on omega-3 sources that have received greater scientific scrutiny, including fish, fish oil, and plant sources of ALA. The American Heart Association recommends that healthy adults eat at least two servings per week of EPA- and DHA-rich fish, such as salmon, herring, mackerel, sardines, and albacore or bluefin tuna. People with heart disease should consume 1 gram of EPA plus DHA daily from fatty fish or fish oil supplements. Heart experts also recommend getting ALA from food sources such as soy products, flaxseed, walnuts, and oils extracted from flaxseed, canola seed, olives, walnuts, or soybeans.
Not only does it take time to get an accurate depression diagnosis, finding the right medication to treat depression can be a complicated, delicate process. Someone may have a serious medical problem, such as heart disease or liver or kidney disease, that could make some antidepressants unsafe. The antidepressant could be ineffective for you or the dose inadequate; there may not have been enough time to see an effect, or the side effects could be too bothersome -- leading to a failure of treatment.
The following information is not intended to provide a medical diagnosis of major depression and cannot take the place of seeing a mental health professional. If you think you are depressed‚ talk with your doctor or a mental health professional immediately. This is especially important if your symptoms are getting worse or affecting your daily activities.
People are often unclear about the differences between anxiety and depression, and confused as to which is their primary problem. Here's an explanation of the differences between anxiety and depression, and some comments on the recovery process. However, as always, if you have the troubles described in this article, you are well advised to discuss these problems with a professional therapist.
When you’re depressed, it can feel like there’s no light at the end of the tunnel. But there are many things you can do to lift and stabilize your mood. The key is to start with a few small goals and slowly build from there, trying to do a little more each day. Feeling better takes time, but you can get there by making positive choices for yourself.
Pregnancy or breast-feeding. A decision to use antidepressants during pregnancy and breast-feeding is based on the balance between risks and benefits. Overall, the risk of birth defects and other problems for babies of mothers who take antidepressants during pregnancy is low. Still, certain antidepressants, such as paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva), may be discouraged during pregnancy. Work with your doctor to find the best way to manage your depression when you're expecting or planning on becoming pregnant.

When you’re suffering from deep, disabling depression, the idea that a pill can give you back your life—and sense of hope—is incredibly appealing. But are antidepressants always the best treatment option? What are the potential side effects and safety concerns? And are there any truly effective non-drug alternatives? These are some of the important questions to think about when considering antidepressant treatment. Learning about what antidepressants can (and can’t) do will enable you to weigh the benefits against the risks, make a more informed decision, and find the depression treatment that’s right for you.
In addition to seeking help from someone you trust or a mental health professional, there are other things you can do to help yourself with depression. You might not notice a difference straight away, but practising these skills each day can help overcome the ‘cycle’ of depression, where feeling bad about yourself leads you to doing less and feeling worse. Here are some self help strategies for depression.

Medication may be right for you if depression is interfering with your ability to function in an important part of your life—work, school, or in your relationships, for example. However, many people use antidepressants when therapy, exercise, or self-help strategies would work just as well or better—minus the unpleasant side effects. Even if you decide to take medication, it’s a good idea to pursue therapy and lifestyle changes that can help you get to the bottom of your underlying issues and develop the tools to beat depression for good. See Coping with Depression and Depression Treatment

All antidepressants on the market are potentially effective. [120] Usually, 2–6 weeks at a therapeutic-dose level are needed to observe a clinical response. The choice of medication should be guided by anticipated safety and tolerability, which aid in compliance; physician familiarity, which aids in patient education and anticipation of adverse effects; and history of previous treatments. Often, treatment failures are caused not by clinical resistance but by medication noncompliance, inadequate duration of therapy, or inadequate dosing.


Increasingly, doctors may use a combination of antidepressants from different classes or add a medication from a completely different chemical class, such as Abilify or Seroquel, that are thought to enhance the effectiveness of antidepressant medication more rapidly than adding or switching to a second antidepressant. Also, new types of antidepressants are constantly being developed, and one of these may be the best for a particular patient.
Do your best to not be this way. Instead, choose to accept your diagnosis and to take the medications and other therapies that have been prescribed for you regularly. Make it a point to talk with your doctor when you are not getting relief as expected or new symptoms develop so that your doctor has a chance to address these concerns. Tell the people that you are close to that you are clinically depressed and ask for their help in overcoming the problem. For instance, your friends can help you resist the urge to withdraw and isolate, and give you feedback as to how you appear to be doing both physically and emotionally. Allow the time necessary for medication therapies to pass before you decide that they aren't working. In general, accept your diagnosis and cooperate as best you can with the people who are trying to help you recover.

Antidepressants. A variety of antidepressants are prescribed for both anxiety and depression. Some of these also help alleviate nerve pain. The research most strongly supports the use of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) as double-duty drugs that can treat both psychiatric disorders and pain. The findings are more mixed about the ability of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to alleviate pain.
When you’re depressed, it can feel like there’s no light at the end of the tunnel. But there are many things you can do to lift and stabilize your mood. The key is to start with a few small goals and slowly build from there, trying to do a little more each day. Feeling better takes time, but you can get there by making positive choices for yourself.
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