Well, as with ketamine, a lot more high-quality research — especially that looks at treatment over a long period of time — is necessary to figure out whether they can. But early results with Celebrex suggest that there may be a modest effect. Other anti-inflammatory drugs might work too, but so far the evidence points to Celebrex being most effective. This might be good news for people whose depression is either linked to inflammation, or who may need to take a pain medication anyway, since the medication can do dual duty. Celebrex and similar drugs are not always safe: They can cause side effects over the short and long-term — especially serious risks for some people include higher blood pressure and bleeding). But those risks may be more acceptable than those that come with today’s standard antidepressants.
Pregnancy or breast-feeding. A decision to use antidepressants during pregnancy and breast-feeding is based on the balance between risks and benefits. Overall, the risk of birth defects and other problems for babies of mothers who take antidepressants during pregnancy is low. Still, certain antidepressants, such as paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva), may be discouraged during pregnancy. Work with your doctor to find the best way to manage your depression when you're expecting or planning on becoming pregnant.
Medical problems. Dealing with a serious health problem, such as stroke, heart attack, or cancer, can lead to depression. Research shows that people who have a serious illness and depression are more likely to have more serious types of both conditions.4 Some medical illnesses, like Parkinson’s disease, hypothyroidism, and stroke, can cause changes in the brain that can trigger depression.
I was physically abused for 40 yrs. ... 2 marriages.... and my head generally took the brunt of the abuse. I was also in 2 car accidents. Again head injury. At this point someone special- a friend- spoke to another friend knowledgeable about TBI and told me he did. I began to realize after feeling hurt and betrayed that something was wrong. I go from happy to sad to panic like flipping a light switch. I get emotional and emotionally hurt over nothing. I don't want to go on this way I need some coping skills and ways to stop what's happening before I get worse.....

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors or MAOIs were the first class of antidepressants to be developed. They fell out of favor because of concerns about interactions with certain foods and numerous drug interactions. MAOIs elevate the levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine by inhibiting an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. Monoamine oxidase breaks down norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. When monoamine oxidase is inhibited, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine are not broken down, increasing the concentration of all three neurotransmitters in the brain.
As of today, there is no laboratory test, blood test, or X-ray that can diagnose a mental disorder. Even the powerful CT, MRI, SPECT, and PET scans, which can help diagnose other neurological disorders such as stroke or brain tumors, cannot detect the subtle and complex brain changes in psychiatric illness. However, these techniques are currently useful ruling out the presence of a number of physical disorders and in research on mental health and perhaps in the future they will be useful for the diagnosis of depression, as well.

Paroxetine is a potent selective inhibitor of neuronal serotonin reuptake and also has a weak effect on norepinephrine and dopamine neuronal reuptake. It has slight anticholinergic effects and may cause more weight gain than other SSRIs. Paroxetine is sometimes prescribed for indications that are not FDA approved, such as eating disorders and the relief of vasomotor symptoms of menopause.


Just as there are many different experiences of anxiety and depression, there are a variety of options for treatments and coping techniques to help manage symptoms.  The recommendations in this section take an integrative mental health approach, which incorporates health-promoting lifestyle changes; evidence-based holistic therapies and healing practices; and mainstream interventions, including psychosocial therapies and the judicious use of prescription medication. We cover each of these areas in detail--click the links or see the menu on the left for more information. 
People are often unclear about the differences between anxiety and depression, and confused as to which is their primary problem. Here's an explanation of the differences between anxiety and depression, and some comments on the recovery process. However, as always, if you have the troubles described in this article, you are well advised to discuss these problems with a professional therapist.

People living with high-functioning anxiety and depression usually do not fit the stereotype of either disorder. In fact, many appear to be overachievers. The anxiety can serve as an energizer, driving the person towards achieving his or her goals. It’s later, when in private, that the symptoms of depression tend to emerge. Feelings of self-doubt and self-criticism, fatigue, helplessness or guilt, moodiness, and a desire to avoid interaction with others become intensified. Because the stereotypical image of depression or anxiety doesn’t match up with what people living with high-functioning anxiety and depression “look like,” it is hard to spot, even for sufferers to recognize in themselves. However, the symptoms of high-functioning anxiety and depression are the same as for non-high functioning anxiety and depression. The main difference is the ability to suppress or diminish the appearance of disruptions in life activities.

Jacobsen PL, Mahableshwarkar AR, Serenko M, Chen Y, Trivedi M. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of vortioxetine 10 mg and 20 mg in adults with major depressive disorder. Program and abstracts of the 166th Annual American Psychiatric Association Meeting; May 18-22, 2013; San Francisco, California. Poster NR9-06.
A very small number of people have had heart problems, epileptic fits or liver damage while taking antidepressants. It is believed that these were rare side effects of antidepressants. Various studies suggest that teenagers consider suicide more often when taking SSRIs or SSNRIs and also actually attempt to take their own lives more often. Teenagers should see their doctor or therapist more regularly at the beginning of treatment so that any risk of suicide can be identified early on.
Whether or not someone has side effects, which side effects they have, and how frequent they are will depend on the drug and on the dose used. And everyone reacts slightly differently to drugs as well. The risk of side effects increases if other medication is also being taken. One of the drugs may make the side effects of the other worse. These kinds of drug interactions are common in older people and people with chronic illnesses who are taking several different kinds of medication.
You may have heard about an herbal medicine called St. John's wort. Although it is a top-selling botanical product, the FDA has not approved its use as an over-the-counter or prescription medicine for depression, and there are serious concerns about its safety (it should never be combined with a prescription antidepressant) and effectiveness. Do not use St. John’s wort before talking to your health care provider. Other natural products sold as dietary supplements, including omega-3 fatty acids and S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), remain under study but have not yet been proven safe and effective for routine use. For more information on herbal and other complementary approaches and current research, please visit the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health website.
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