Depression and Anxiety, the official journal of the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA), welcomes original research and synthetic review articles covering neurobiology (genetics and neuroimaging), epidemiology, experimental psychopathology, and treatment (psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic) aspects of mood and anxiety disorders and related phenomena in humans.
Certain medications used for a variety of medical conditions are more likely than others to cause depression as a side effect. Specifically, some medications that treat high blood pressure, cancer, seizures, extreme pain, and to achieve contraception can result in depression. Even some psychiatric medications, like some sleep aids and medications to treat alcoholism and anxiety, can contribute to the development of depression.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors were the first antidepressants discovered, in the early 1950s. They are widely effective in a broad range of affective and anxiety disorders. MAOIs irreversibly block monamine oxidase, which has 2 forms, including MOAa and MOAb. MAOa breaks down serotonin and norepinephrine. MOAb metabolizes phenylethylamine. Both forms break down dopamine.

Beware of drug interactions. You should avoid drinking alcohol when taking SSRIs since it can lessen the effects of the medication. Dangerous drug interactions can occur when SSRIs are taken with antihistamines, found in many over-the-counter cold and allergy medicines and sleep aids, or with prescription painkillers. Always talk to your doctor or pharmacist before combining medications.
Patients with generalized anxiety disorder can’t control their constant worry. They worry about life events that may never even happen. They are “worry warts” who often expect the worst possible outcome of every situation. Physical symptoms such as fatigue, trouble concentrating, and having tense muscles are common in these patients. Phobias are fears of specific objects or places, such as an intense fear of social interactions that causes the patient to avoid most social situations (social phobia). Physicians and mental health professionals assess these symptoms through interviews, surveys, and observing patient behavior.
Play is natural and fun for children and an important part of learning and development. Play therapy is a therapy used by licensed mental health professionals to help children to better express their thoughts and emotions and to address a variety of problems. When children are unable to put into words their feelings or concerns, play can help them express themselves and learn ways to cope.  
Americans are obsessed with happiness, yet we are increasingly depressed: Some 15 million Americans battle the disorder, and increasing numbers of them are young people. Mental anguish is hard on your health. People suffering from depression have three times the risk of experiencing a cardiac event. In fact, depression affects the entire body. It weakens the immune system, increasing susceptibility to viral infections and, over time, possibly even some kinds of cancer—a strong argument for early treatment of depression. It interferes with sleep, adding to feelings of lethargy, compounding problems of focus and concentration, and generally undermining health. Those suffering from depression also experience higher rates of diabetes and osteoporosis. Sometimes depression manifests as a persistent low mood, a condition known as dysthymia. It is usually marked by years-long periods of low energy, low self-esteem, and little ability to experience pleasure.
Develop good habits. Take your depression medicine at the same time every day. It's easier to remember if you do it along with another activity such as eating breakfast or getting into bed. Get a weekly pillbox, which will make it easy to see if you've missed a dose. Since people sometimes forget a dose now and then, make sure you know what to do if that happens.

Behavioral activation is the practice of gradually increasing activity to experience more pleasure and mastery in life, according to Joel Minden, Ph.D., a clinical psychologist at the Chico Center for Cognitive Behavior Therapy. The therapeutic technique is relatively new, so it has a limited amount of research backing it. Nonetheless, it did spring from cognitive behavior therapy [CBT], which has mountains of research to support its efficacy.
When these types of thoughts overwhelm you, it’s important to remember that this is a symptom of your depression and these irrational, pessimistic attitudes—known as cognitive distortions—aren’t realistic. When you really examine them they don’t hold up. But even so, they can be tough to give up. You can’t break out of this pessimistic mind frame by telling yourself to “just think positive.” Often, it’s part of a lifelong pattern of thinking that’s become so automatic you’re not even completely aware of it. Rather, the trick is to identify the type of negative thoughts that are fueling your depression, and replace them with a more balanced way of thinking.
At first glance the ability to walk may not seem like something to be grateful for. Think about it this way, however: There are people who were born without it. If you have something not everyone in the world has, you can consider that something to be grateful for. This attitude will allow you to transform your perception of belongings and abilities into sources of gratitude.
Bear in mind that while effective treatment for anxiety or depression need not be a long-term commitment, it is likely to require regular, ongoing appointments at least in the short-term (e.g., 6-12 months). Therefore, it is critical to find a professional you trust and with whom you feel comfortable speaking about your symptoms. It is equally important to make sure that you find a clinician that you can afford. Before making the commitment for ongoing care, you may want to meet with a couple of providers to get a feel for therapeutic styles/approaches and their treatment recommendations; you can then use this information to determine which path forward feels best to you.
The doctor usually asks about alcohol and drug use and whether the patient has had thoughts about death or suicide. Further, the history often includes questions about whether other family members have had a depressive illness, and if treated, what treatments they received and which were effective. Professionals are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of exploring potential cultural differences in how people with depression experience, understand, and express depression in order to appropriately assess and treat this condition.
Whether or not someone has side effects, which side effects they have, and how frequent they are will depend on the drug and on the dose used. And everyone reacts slightly differently to drugs as well. The risk of side effects increases if other medication is also being taken. One of the drugs may make the side effects of the other worse. These kinds of drug interactions are common in older people and people with chronic illnesses who are taking several different kinds of medication.
Some people with milder forms of depression get better after treatment with therapy. People with moderate to severe depression might need a type of medicine called an antidepressant in addition to therapy. Antidepressants change the levels of certain chemicals in your brain. It may take a few weeks or months before you begin to feel a change in your mood. There are different types of antidepressant medicines, and some work better than others for certain people. Some people get better only with both treatments — therapy and antidepressants.
A person with anxiety disorder, however, experiences fear, panic or anxiety in situations where most people would not feel anxious or threatened. The sufferer may experience sudden panic or anxiety attacks without any recognized trigger, and often lives with a constant nagging worry or anxiousness. Without treatment, anxiety and depression disorders can restrict a person's ability to work, maintain relationships, or even leave the house.

Atypical antidepressants include bupropion (Wellbutrin, Wellbutrin SR), mirtazapine (Remeron), and trazodone (Desyrel). These agents are effective in treating major depression and may be effective in combination therapy in major depressive disorder. This group also shows low toxicity in overdose. Wellbutrin SR may have an advantage over the SSRIs by causing less sexual dysfunction and weight gain.


When taking these medications‚ it is important to follow the instructions on how much to take. Some people start to feel better a few days after starting the medication‚ but it can take up to 4 weeks to feel the most benefit. Antidepressants work well and are safe for most people‚ but it is still important to talk with your doctor if you have side effects. Side effects usually do not get in the way of daily life‚ and they often go away as your body adjusts to the medication.
The doctor usually asks about alcohol and drug use and whether the patient has had thoughts about death or suicide. Further, the history often includes questions about whether other family members have had a depressive illness, and if treated, what treatments they received and which were effective. Professionals are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of exploring potential cultural differences in how people with depression experience, understand, and express depression in order to appropriately assess and treat this condition.

Exercise. As mentioned above, regular vigorous physical exercise is thought to have an antidepressant effect. Exercise offers many other benefits as well, including general improvements to your health and an opportunity to socialize (e.g., in a gym or with teammates), or to be alone (e.g., on a bike or solitary hike). Exercise is also a great way to distract yourself from your thoughts as the need to attend to the physical demands of what you are doing tend to drive out self-critical thinking (at least for a little while). Check with your doctor before starting a new physical exercise program just to make sure your body is up to handling it.


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Doctors often start by prescribing an SSRI. These medications generally cause fewer bothersome side effects and are less likely to cause problems at higher therapeutic doses than other types of antidepressants are. SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva), sertraline (Zoloft), citalopram (Celexa) and escitalopram (Lexapro).
Trial of sildenafil (Viagra) or other sexual-enhancement medication. Studies in men whose depression has responded to SSRI but have developed sexual dysfunction showed improvement in sexual function with Viagra. Men taking Viagra reported significant improvements in arousal, erection, ejaculation, and orgasm as compared to men who were taking placebo, although Viagra generally does not increase one's libido.
Once you have your list of questions, it’s time to seek out referrals. If you know other people in your area who suffer (or have suffered) from depression, ask them. Word of mouth can be a great way to find a good match. If this is not possible, begin with your physician. It’s always a good idea to get a physical if you suspect major depressive disorder because some medical problems can cause similar symptoms. If medical conditions are ruled out as a cause of the symptoms of depression, ask your primary care physician for a list of referrals for therapists.
Thus far in this document, we've described therapies that are generally best prescribed and monitored by clinical professionals. However, it is also possible to take a self-help approach to the treatment of depression under certain circumstances. Self-help approaches emphasize what people can do for themselves rather than what professionals can offer.
Physicians continue to investigate how to most effectively make treatment of depression available and acceptable to all who need it. This is particularly important for children and adolescents, minorities, individuals who are economically disadvantaged or live in rural areas, the elderly and for people with developmental disabilities, who suffer from lack of adequate access to mental health treatment that is knowledgeable and respectful of what may be their unique needs and preferences. While sadness will always be part of the human condition, hopefully we will be able to lessen or eradicate the more severe mood disorders from the world to the benefit of all of us.
We know it can be tough take on any of these depression self help tips when you’re feeling really bad. Also, when it comes to self-help, strategies for feeling better are very individualistic. That is, different things work for different people. Not everyone will want to start doing yoga, for example, so keep trying different ideas even if the first thing you try doesn’t help.
Since babies, toddlers, and preschool children are usually unable to express their feelings in words, they tend to show sadness in their behaviors. For example, they may become withdrawn, resume old, younger behaviors (regress), or fail to thrive. School-age children might regress in their school performance, develop physical complaints, anxiety, or irritability. Interestingly, some children may try more, sometimes even excessively, to please others when depressed as a way of compensating for their low self-esteem. Therefore, their good grades and apparently good relationships with others may make depression harder to recognize.
Anxiety Disorders are characterized by a sense of doubt and vulnerability about future events. The attention of anxious people is focused on their future prospects, and the fear that those future prospects will be bad. Anxiety Disorders are characterized by a variety of symptoms involving anxious thoughts, unexplained physical sensations, and avoidant or self protective behaviors.

Schizophrenia is associated with an imbalance of dopamine (too much) and serotonin (poorly regulated) in certain areas of the brain. Finally, the depressive disorders appear to be associated with altered brain serotonin and norepinephrine systems. Both of these neurochemicals may be lower in depressed people. Please note that depression is "associated with" instead of "caused by" abnormalities of these neurochemicals because we really don't know whether low levels of neurochemicals in the brain cause depression or whether depression causes low levels of neurochemicals in the brain.
Programs that use mental health professionals to teach thinking skills (cognitive techniques) that assist in coping with stress seem to be effective in preventing depression. Key aspects in the prevention of postpartum depression include helping new mothers decrease those specific aspects of their lives that may contribute to depression, like having little social support and poor adjustment to their marriage or other domestic union. Engaging in religious or spiritual practices can often prevent depression, thought to be the result of decreasing stress, increasing a sense of hope, and providing a sense of community. On the other hand, people who feel they are unable to live up to the standards set by their family, societal, religious, or spiritual practices may feel a sense of guilt that becomes a risk factor for depression.
Being both anxious and depressed is a tremendous challenge. Clinicians have observed when anxiety occurs comorbidly (together) with depression, the symptoms of both depression and anxiety are more severe compared to when each disorder occursalone. Moreover, the symptoms of depression take longer to resolve, making the illness more chronic and more resistant to treatment (read more about: Depression Treatment).
Imipramine is one of the oldest agents available for the treatment of depression. It is demethylated in the liver to desipramine. Imipramine inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine and, more potently, serotonin at the presynaptic neuronal membrane. It has a strong affinity for alpha-adrenergic, H1, and M1 receptors. Common side effects include orthostasis, sedation, weight gain, and anticholinergic effects. It is also used off-label in the treatment of panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder; a severe form of Pre-Menstrual Syndrome that is diagnosed when a woman experiences severe symptoms of depression, tension, and irritability in the week prior to menstruation. While it isn’t uncommon for most women to experience emotional and physical changes prior to menstruation, women who meet criteria for PMDD experience changes that impact their lives in more profound ways.[5] 
Venlafaxine and its active metabolite inhibit neuronal serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. They are weak inhibitors of dopamine reuptake. In addition, it causes beta-receptor down-regulation. Venlafaxine is sometimes prescribed for non–FDA-approved indications, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, hot flashes, neuropathic pain, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder.
Certain brain chemicals called neurotransmitters are associated with depression — particularly serotonin (ser-o-TOE-nin), norepinephrine (nor-ep-ih-NEF-rin) and dopamine (DOE-puh-meen). Most antidepressants relieve depression by affecting these neurotransmitters. Each type (class) of antidepressant affects these neurotransmitters in slightly different ways.
Appropriate treatment for depression starts with a physical examination by a physician. Certain medications, as well as some medical conditions such as viral infections or a thyroid disorder, can cause the same symptoms as depression and should be ruled out. The doctor should ask about alcohol and drug use, and whether the patient has thoughts about death or suicide.
Anxiety Disorders are characterized by a sense of doubt and vulnerability about future events. The attention of anxious people is focused on their future prospects, and the fear that those future prospects will be bad. Anxiety Disorders are characterized by a variety of symptoms involving anxious thoughts, unexplained physical sensations, and avoidant or self protective behaviors.
Rebecca, age 57, struggled with depression and had a few wake-up calls as a smoker. She felt depressed and smoked cigarettes to help her cope with her feelings. The more Rebecca smoked, the harder it seemed to quit. Rebecca finally quit smoking after getting care for her depression and realizing that she had to take care of her own health. She now leads a new, smokefree life.
Family and friends can help! Since depression can make the affected person feel exhausted and helpless, he or she will want and probably need help from others. However, people who have never had a depressive disorder may not fully understand its effects. Although unintentional, friends and loved ones may unknowingly say and do things that may be hurtful to the depressed person. If you are struggling with depression, it may help to share the information in this article with those you most care about so they can better understand and help you.
Most antidepressants are generally safe, but the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that all antidepressants carry black box warnings, the strictest warnings for prescriptions. In some cases, children, teenagers and young adults under 25 may have an increase in suicidal thoughts or behavior when taking antidepressants, especially in the first few weeks after starting or when the dose is changed.
On March 5, 2019 the FDA approved a new nasal spray medication- Spravato (esketamine) for treatment-resistant depression, available only at a certified doctor’s office or clinic. Ketamine represents a major step forward in the treatment of depression and suicide prevention. ADAA recognizes that clinicians want to offer their patients evidence-based options which have passed through the numerous stages of FDA testing, and this marks the first FDA approval of a ketamine product for a psychiatric indication. This is also the first antidepressant with a novel mechanism of action that we have had in decades.     
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is one form of psychotherapy that has been shown to be successful in treating depression and anxiety disorders. CBT combines the fundamental concepts of behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy. The term “cognitive” refers to our thought process and reflects what we think, believe and perceive. Put together, CBT focuses on our behaviors and thoughts and how they are contributing to our current symptoms and difficulties.
The SSRIs work by keeping serotonin present in high concentrations in the synapses. These drugs do this by preventing the reuptake of serotonin back into the sending nerve cell. The reuptake of serotonin is responsible for turning off the production of new serotonin. Therefore, the serotonin message keeps on coming through. This, in turn, helps arouse (activate) cells that have been deactivated by depression, thereby relieving the depressed person's symptoms. SSRIs have fewer side effects than the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). SSRIs do not interact with the chemical tyramine in foods, as do the MAOIs, and therefore do not require the dietary restrictions of the MAOIs. Also, SSRIs do not cause orthostatic hypotension (sudden drop in blood pressure when sitting up or standing) and are less likely to predispose to heart-rhythm disturbances like the TCAs do. Therefore, SSRIs are often the first-line treatment for depression. Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), sertraline (Zoloft), citalopram (Celexa), fluvoxamine (Luvox), escitalopram (Lexapro), vortioxetine (Trintellix), and vilazodone (Viibryd).
Stay active. Exercise can make a difference to your energy levels and help stimulate hormones (such as endorphins) that help you feel better about yourself. Make a realistic goal to increase your level of activity. For example, if you’ve found it difficult even to get out of bed for the last few days, an achievable goal might be just to go for a walk outside in the fresh air for five minutes.
Connect with others. It’s common to withdraw when you’re feeling depressed, but this can make you feel worse. Try to reconnect with friends. Again, make your goal realistic: if you’ve been avoiding your friends altogether, a starting point might be to send a text or (finally) to reply to one. If you don’t feel like leaving the house, you could ask them to come and hang out with you at home.
As a matter of fact, many researchers think that antidepressant medications should work more quickly — that people shouldn’t have to take a medication for weeks before they see some improvement. Especially because the most common antidepressants cause short- and long-term side effects — all antidepressants can produce psychological side effects, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) can cause heart problems, and SSRI and SNRI medications cause issues ranging from nausea to weight gain and low sex drive, among others. Alternatives and better options are a good thing.
Clinical depression goes by many names, such as “the blues,” biological or clinical depression, and a major depressive episode. But all of these names refer to the same thing: feeling sad and depressed for weeks or months on end — not just a passing blue mood of a day or two. This feeling is most often accompanied by a sense of hopelessness, a lack of energy (or feeling “weighed down”), and taking little or no pleasure in things that once gave a person joy in the past.
Family and friends can help! Since depression can make the affected person feel exhausted and helpless, he or she will want and probably need help from others. However, people who have never had a depressive disorder may not fully understand its effects. Although unintentional, friends and loved ones may unknowingly say and do things that may be hurtful to the depressed person. If you are struggling with depression, it may help to share the information in this article with those you most care about so they can better understand and help you.
A number of psychiatric syndromes feature depressed mood as a main symptom. The mood disorders are a group of disorders considered to be primary disturbances of mood. These include major depressive disorder (MDD; commonly called major depression or clinical depression) where a person has at least two weeks of depressed mood or a loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities; and dysthymia, a state of chronic depressed mood, the symptoms of which do not meet the severity of a major depressive episode. Another mood disorder, bipolar disorder, features one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood, cognition and energy levels, but may also involve one or more episodes of depression.[22] When the course of depressive episodes follows a seasonal pattern, the disorder (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, etc.) may be described as a seasonal affective disorder. Outside the mood disorders: borderline personality disorder often features an extremely intense depressive mood; adjustment disorder with depressed mood is a mood disturbance appearing as a psychological response to an identifiable event or stressor, in which the resulting emotional or behavioral symptoms are significant but do not meet the criteria for a major depressive episode;[23]:355 and posttraumatic stress disorder, a mental disorder that sometimes follows trauma, is commonly accompanied by depressed mood.[24]
Occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. It’s common for people to feel anxious if there’s conflict in a relationship, a problem at work, a big test looming or a major decision dead ahead. But anxiety disorders involve more than temporary worry or fear. For people with an anxiety disorder, the anxiety does not go away. It often gets worse over time to the point where feelings interfere with their daily functions.3
On the other end of the spectrum, researchers are exploring a salvage medication for people with suicidal depression: ketamine, a street drug that can induce hallucinations and out-of-body experiences but that can also provide astonishingly swift relief from depression. Ketamine is currently undergoing clinical trials; meanwhile, physicians warn that this drug can be abused.
The sensation that your heart has skipped a beat or suddenly started to race is known as palpitations. Although frightening, palpitations usually aren't a sign of something serious. Some home remedies may help: cut back on caffeine and alcohol, eat regularly to avoid low blood sugar, drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration, and practice meditation or relaxation exercises.
Many people living with high-functioning anxiety and depression are described as Type-A personalities or overachievers. They often excel at work or appear to be “super mom/dad” and seem to have it all under control. Other people may notice signs of high-functioning anxiety and depression but characterize the behaviors as “anal retentive” quirks or bad habits. And, many times, signs and symptoms of high-functioning depression and anxiety that others observe are given positive attributes, rather than being seen for what they are. For instance, anxiety and worry may be expressed as dwelling on minor details and viewed as perfectionism. What observers generally do not see are the private struggles with stress, sleeplessness, digestive issues, self-criticism, or feelings of sadness and gloom that had to be overcome to attain achievements.
Many migraine patients suffer from symptoms of depression and anxiety. Migraine patients are between two to five times more likely to have these symptoms than patients without migraine. About 25% of patients with migraine have depression, and about 50% have anxiety. Some patients have symptoms of these disorders after living with migraine for years. Others develop them before migraine. At this time, scientists don’t know the exact answer why all are so common. One of the brain chemicals involved in all these conditions is called serotonin. Hormone changes in women can also trigger both conditions.
Depression can increase the risks for developing coronary artery disease and asthma, contracting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and many other medical illnesses. Other complications of depression include its tendency to increase the morbidity (illness/negative health effects) and mortality (death) from these and many other medical conditions.
Serotonin syndrome: Serotonin syndrome is a serious medical condition that can occur when medications that alter the concentration of serotonin in the brain are taken together. Symptoms of serotonin syndrome may include anxiety, restlessness, sweating, muscle spasms, shaking, fever, rapid heartbeat, vomiting, and diarrhea. Examples of medications that can cause serotonin syndrome include antidepressants, some pain relievers such as meperidine (Demerol) or tramadol (Ultram), St. John's wort, medicines used to treat migraine headaches called triptans, and some street drugs such as cocaine.
Researchers once thought the relationship between pain, anxiety, and depression resulted mainly from psychological rather than biological factors. Chronic pain is depressing, and likewise major depression may feel physically painful. But as researchers have learned more about how the brain works, and how the nervous system interacts with other parts of the body, they have discovered that pain shares some biological mechanisms with anxiety and depression.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms vary from person to person, and can last for days to months without periods of remission. Symptoms of MS include sexual problems and problems with the bowel, bladder, eyes, muscles, speech, swallowing, brain, and nervous system. The early symptoms and signs of multiple sclerosis usually start between age 20 and 40. MS in children, teens, and those over age 40 is rare. Treatment options for multiple sclerosis vary depending on the type and severity of symptoms. Medications may be prescribed to manage MS symptoms.

The ADAA 2020 40th Annual Conference (March 19-22, San Antonio, Texas) will bring together clinicians and researchers who want to improve treatments and find cures for anxiety, depression and related disorders. Join more than 1,400 peers from across the US and around the world. Connect, share and collaborate. Choose from 160+ sessions, hear engaging keynotes, learn about cutting-edge thinking in research and clinical practice, and earn continuing education credits (CEs and CMEs). Find your professional home and leave more connected to your peers, and better able to integrate research, practice, and community. #ADAA2020
A wide variety of treatments have been proven effective in treating depression. Some involve talking and behavioral change. Others involve taking medications. There are also techniques that focus on neuromodulation, which incorporates electrical, magnetic or other forms of energy to stimulate brain pathways. Examples of neuromodulation include electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), vagus-nerve stimulation (VNS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and the experimental deep-brain stimulation (DBS).
The SSRIs are not thought to be as worrisome in patients with cardiac disease, as they do not appear to exert any effect on blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac conduction, or cardiac rhythm; however, dose-dependent QT prolongation has been reported with citalopram. Because of the risk for QT prolongation, citalopram is contraindicated in individuals with congenital long QT syndrome. [103, 104]
Interestingly, the researchers propose that the way Botox may work is by preventing people from frowning. The facial feedback hypothesis — which dates back to Charles Darwin — proposes that using the muscles in your face can have an effect on your emotions. In other words, that smiling can make you happier, and frowning can make you sadder. Botox temporarily paralyzes the muscles that control frowning — and in effect, that might play a role in turning that frown upside down.
While some people describe depression as “living in a black hole” or having a feeling of impending doom, others feel lifeless, empty, and apathetic. Men in particular can feel angry and restless. No matter how you experience depression, left untreated it can become a serious health condition. But it’s important to remember that feelings of helplessness and hopelessness are symptoms of depression—not the reality of your situation. There are plenty of powerful self-help steps you can take to lift your mood, overcome depression, and regain your joy of life.
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