In the 1950s and '60s, health care professionals divided depression into two types, endogenous and neurotic. Endogenous means that the depression comes from within the body, perhaps of genetic origin, or comes out of nowhere. Neurotic or reactive depression has a clear environmental precipitating factor, such as the death of a spouse, or other significant loss, such as the loss of a job. In the 1970s and '80s, the focus of attention shifted from the cause of depression to its effects on the afflicted people. That is to say, whatever the cause in a particular case, what are the symptoms and impaired functions that experts can agree make up a depressive illness? Although experts sometimes dispute these issues, most agree on the following:
People who are depressed may reject your help because they feel they should be able to help themselves, and feel worthless when they can’t. Instead, they may withdraw or start an argument in an effort to resolve their difficulties. In addition, people with depression may have negative thoughts and feel so hopeless that they do not see recovery as a reality.
The presence of maternal-fetal stress is another risk factor for depression. It seems that maternal stress during pregnancy can increase the chance that the child will be prone to depression as an adult, particularly if there is a genetic vulnerability. Researchers believe that the mother's circulating stress hormones can influence the development of the fetus' brain during pregnancy. This altered fetal brain development occurs in ways that predispose the child to the risk of depression as an adult. Further research is still necessary to clarify how this happens. Again, this situation shows the complex interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental stress, in this case, the stress of the mother on the fetus.
Crisis lines aren’t only for people in crisis. You can call for information on local services or if you just need someone to talk to. If you are in distress, call 310-6789 (do not add 604, 778 or 250 before the number) 24 hours a day to connect to a BC crisis line, without a wait or busy signal. The crisis lines linked in through 310-6789 have received advanced training in mental health issues and services by members of the BC Partners for Mental Health and Addictions Information.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) – MAOIs have more serious side effects, so they are rarely prescribed unless other medications do not work. MAOIs have many interaction effects with foods and other medications, so people who take them may have to change their diet and other medications. SSRIs and many other medications taken for mental illness cannot be taken with MAOIs.
Social abuse, such as bullying, are defined as actions of singling out and causing harm on vulnerable individuals. In order to capture a day-to-day observation of the relationship between the damaging effects of social abuse, the victim’s mental health and depressive mood, a study was conducted on whether individuals would have a higher level of depressed mood when exposed to daily acts of negative behavior. The result concluded that being exposed daily to abusive behaviors such as bullying has a positive relationship to depressed mood on the same day.
High-functioning anxiety and depression is treated the same way as other anxiety and depressive disorders, through psychotherapy and medication. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) combined with antidepressants or antianxiety medications can be very effective and shows improved outcomes over treatment that employs only therapy or medication. Residential treatment can also be beneficial for people living with high-functioning anxiety and depression. Residential treatment allows for individuals to get care in a home-like setting, but in a controlled environment away from home, possible triggers, and the rigors of daily life.
Life is full of ups and downs, but when you feel sad, empty, or hopeless most of the time for at least 2 weeks or those feelings keep you from your regular activities, you may have depression. Depression is a serious mental health condition. In the past year, women were almost twice as likely as men to have symptoms of depression.1 Depression is not a normal part of being a woman. Most women, even those with the most severe depression, can get better with treatment.
Bipolar disorder is different from depression, but it is included in this list is because someone with bipolar disorder experiences episodes of extremely low moods that meet the criteria for major depression (called “bipolar depression”). But a person with bipolar disorder also experiences extreme high – euphoric or irritable – moods called “mania” or a less severe form called “hypomania.”