Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with rickets, cancer, cardiovascular disease, severe asthma in children and cognitive impairment in older adults. Causes include not ingesting enough of the vitamin over time, having limited exposure to sunlight, having dark skin, and obesity. Symptoms include bone pain and muscle weakness. Treatment for vitamin D deficiency involves obtaining more vitamin D through supplements, diet, or exposure to sunlight.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were among the earliest treatments for depression. The MAOIs block an enzyme, monoamine oxidase, that then causes an increase in brain chemicals related to mood, such as serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. Examples are phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate) , isocarboxazid (Marplan), and transdermal selegiline (the EMSAM skin patch). Although MAOIs work well, they're not prescribed very often because of the risk of serious interactions with some other medications and certain foods. Foods that can negatively react with the MAOIs include aged cheese and aged meats.
In major depressive disorder, these types of thoughts are persistent most of the day, more days than not for weeks on end. If an individual vacillates between a very low and very high mood state, then a diagnosis of bipolar disorder may apply. However, for any variant of a mood disorder, the low mood state is likely to be characterized by the type of thinking described above.
Medication treatment of anxiety is generally safe and effective and is often used in conjunction with therapy. Medication may be a short-term or long-term treatment option, depending on severity of symptoms, other medical conditions, and other individual circumstances. However, it often takes time and patience to find the drug that works best for you.
While some illnesses have a specific medical cause, making treatment straightforward, depression is more complicated. Depression is not just the result of a chemical imbalance in the brain that can be simply cured with medication. It’s caused by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors. In other words, your lifestyle choices, relationships, and coping skills matter just as much—if not more so—than genetics.
The SSRI antidepressants can cause sexual dysfunction. SSRIs reportedly decrease sex drive (libido) in both men and women. SSRIs reportedly cause inability to achieve orgasm or delay in achieving orgasm (anorgasmia) in women and difficulty with ejaculation (delay in ejaculating or loss of ability to ejaculate) and erections in men. Sexual dysfunction with SSRIs is common though the exact incidence is unknown. Newer SSRIs like vortioxetine and vilazodone have little to no negative impact on sexual functioning. Furthermore, patients have reported sexual side effects with the use of other antidepressant classes such a MAOIs, TCAs, and dual-action antidepressants.

Towards the end of the treatment, the dose is gradually reduced over the course of several weeks. You may experience temporary sleep problems, nausea or restlessness while coming off the medication. These problems are especially common if you stop taking antidepressants suddenly. Sometimes people stop taking their medication as soon as they start feeling better. But doing so increases the likelihood of the depression returning. Unlike many sleeping pills and sedatives, though, antidepressants do not cause physical dependence.


Problem-focused coping leads to lower level of depression. Focusing on the problem allows for the subjects to view the situation in an objective way, evaluating the severity of the threat in an unbiased way, thus it lowers the probability of having depressive responses. On the other hand, emotion-focused coping promotes depressed mood in stressful situations. The person has been contaminated with too much irrelevant information and loses focus on the options for resolving the problem. They fail to consider the potential consequences and choose the option that minimizes stress and maximizes well-being.

National Institute of Mental Health: "Mental Health Medications," "Antidepressants.", Mayo Clinic: "Antidepressants: Selecting one that's right for you.", The New York Times: "Meditation Plus Running as a Treatment for Depression," "To Treat Depression, Drugs or Therapy?"; Pond5; Guido Vrola; Rocketclips, Inc.; pertusinas; Andrey Popov; Thinkstock; EpicStockMedia; AudioJungle.

All antidepressants on the market are potentially effective. [120] Usually, 2–6 weeks at a therapeutic-dose level are needed to observe a clinical response. The choice of medication should be guided by anticipated safety and tolerability, which aid in compliance; physician familiarity, which aids in patient education and anticipation of adverse effects; and history of previous treatments. Often, treatment failures are caused not by clinical resistance but by medication noncompliance, inadequate duration of therapy, or inadequate dosing.

The key to living with depression is ensuring you’re receiving adequate treatment for it (usually most people benefit from both psychotherapy and medication), and that you are an active participant in your treatment plan on a daily basis. This requires a lot of effort and hard work for most people, but it can be done. Establishing new, healthier routines are important in many people’s management of this condition. Getting regular emotional support — for instance, through an online support group — can also be extremely beneficial.
SNRIs can be used as first-line agents, particularly in patients with significant fatigue or pain syndromes associated with the episode of depression. The SNRIs also have an important role as second-line agents in patients who have not responded to SSRIs. Safety, tolerability, and side-effect profiles are similar to those of the SSRIs, with the exception that venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine have been associated (rarely) with a sustained rise in blood pressure. Venlafaxine has been particularly associated with hyponatremia.
The birth of a baby can trigger mood swings or crying spells in the following days or weeks, the so-called baby blues. When the reaction is more severe and prolonged, it is considered postpartum depression, a condition requiring treatment because it can interfere with the ability to care for the newborn. Depression can also occur seasonally, primarily in the winter months when sunlight is in short supply. Known as seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, it is often ameliorated by daily exposure to specific types of artificial light.
For full recovery from a mood disorder, regardless of whether there is a precipitating factor or it seems to come out of the blue, treatments with medication, phototherapy and/or brain stimulation therapies, like electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), as well as psychotherapy and participation in support groups are often necessary.
Desipramine inhibits the reuptake of serotonin and, more potently, norepinephrine at the presynaptic neuronal membrane. It is a commonly used TCA that is relatively less sedating and tends to have fewer anticholinergic and antihistaminic adverse effects than other TCAs. It is sometimes used for off-label indications such as peripheral neuropathy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Reminiscence of old and fond memories is another alternative form of treatment, especially for the elderly who have lived longer and have more experiences in life. It is a method that causes a person to recollect memories of their own life, leading to a process of self-recognition and identifying familiar stimuli. By maintaining one’s personal past and identity, it is a technique that stimulates people to view their lives in a more objective and balanced way, causing them to pay attention to positive information in their life stories, which would successfully reduce depressive mood levels.[38]
However, researchers have also been looking into ketamine for treating depression. And results have been encouraging. Ketamine may have a “rapid onset” of antidepressant effect, meaning that it can help people feel better quickly. That boost may be temporary, lasting just a few days. And unlike antidepressants you can take once a day at home, ketamine must be injected or given by IV. Repeated treatments at a clinic might be necessary to help produce a long-lasting antidepressant effect, and psychiatrists and family doctors might not feel comfortable doing that. But here’s the promise: Quicker relief that helps people start living their lives again — getting out of that depressive funk sooner.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are medications that increase the amount of the neurochemical serotonin in the brain. (Remember that brain serotonin levels often are low in depression.) As their name implies, the SSRIs work by selectively inhibiting (blocking) serotonin reuptake in the brain. This block occurs at the synapse, the place where brain cells (neurons) connect to each other. Serotonin is one of the chemicals in the brain that carries messages across these connections (synapses) from one neuron to another.

We are close to having genetic markers for bipolar disorder. Soon after, we hope to have them for major depression. That way, we can know of a child's vulnerability to depression from birth and try to create preventive strategies. For example, we can teach parents the added importance of providing a supportive and otherwise healthy environment given their child's vulnerability. Parents can also be taught the early warning signs of depression so that they can get treatment for their children, if necessary, to ward off future problems.
For treatment with antidepressants to work, a careful diagnosis has to be made first. Experts believe that some people are prescribed antidepressants unnecessarily. The fact that significantly more people take antidepressants nowadays suggests that. These medications are sometimes already prescribed for milder cases, even though there is doubt about how well they work in mild depression.

Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Also called major depressive disorder or clinical depression, it affects how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. You may have trouble doing normal day-to-day activities, and sometimes you may feel as if life isn't worth living.
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