Generally, people who have anxiety or depression disorders display significant disruptions in their ability to work, go to school, or participate in social functions. But with high-functioning anxiety and depression, although those disruptions are not as apparent, they still can occur. The signs and symptoms are often overlooked, because sufferers are able to manage daily activities, but they are suffering in silence. To the outside world, people living with high-functioning anxiety and depression seem fine and often excel at accomplishing tasks and goals.
If you have have experienced depression and bipolar disorder, you will be able to track your progress, share information, ask questions, and evaluate your treatments. How? Become a participant in the MoodNetwork. Participants will also be contributing to the largest pool of data ever collected about mood disorders, which will lead to evaluating treatments and helping to set priorities for future research studies.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder; a severe form of Pre-Menstrual Syndrome that is diagnosed when a woman experiences severe symptoms of depression, tension, and irritability in the week prior to menstruation. While it isn’t uncommon for most women to experience emotional and physical changes prior to menstruation, women who meet criteria for PMDD experience changes that impact their lives in more profound ways.
Many medications and therapies help with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Antidepressants reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety because they change how the brain sends chemical signals. Sometimes a single method can help both symptoms of depression/anxiety and headache. However, many patients require two different drugs or behavioral treatments for a period of time. They need one to treat depression/anxiety and another to prevent migraines.
The new world of pharmacogenetics holds the promise of actually keeping the genes responsible for depression turned off so as to avoid the illnesses completely. Also, by studying genes, we are learning more about the matching of patients with treatment. This kind of information can tell us which patients do well on which types of drugs and psychotherapy regimens.
People are often unclear about the differences between anxiety and depression, and confused as to which is their primary problem. Here's an explanation of the differences between anxiety and depression, and some comments on the recovery process. However, as always, if you have the troubles described in this article, you are well advised to discuss these problems with a professional therapist.
Believed to be caused in part by a malfunction of brain chemistry, generalized anxiety is not the normal apprehension one feels before taking a test or awaiting the outcome of a biopsy. A person with an anxiety disorder suffers from what President Franklin Roosevelt called "fear itself." For a reason that is only partially known, the brain's fight-or-flight mechanism becomes activated, even when no real threat exists. Being chronically anxious is like being stalked by an imaginary tiger. The feeling of being in danger never goes away.
Patients with anxiety or depression sometimes find that combining psychotherapy with medication offers the most complete relief. A randomized controlled trial, the Stepped Care for Affective Disorders and Musculoskeletal Pain (SCAMP) study, suggests that a combination approach might also work for people suffering pain in addition to a psychiatric disorder.
Antianxiety drugs such as diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), and lorazepam (Ativan) are not antidepressants, but doctors occasionally prescribe these alone or with antidepressants for a brief period of anxiety. However, patients should not take these alone for depressive disorder. Due to their addiction potential, patients should phase out the antianxiety drugs as soon as the antidepressant and antianxiety effects of the antidepressant medications begin to work, which is usually in four to six weeks.
Interestingly, the researchers propose that the way Botox may work is by preventing people from frowning. The facial feedback hypothesis — which dates back to Charles Darwin — proposes that using the muscles in your face can have an effect on your emotions. In other words, that smiling can make you happier, and frowning can make you sadder. Botox temporarily paralyzes the muscles that control frowning — and in effect, that might play a role in turning that frown upside down.
MAOIs also impair the ability to break down tyramine, a substance found in aged cheese, wines, most nuts, chocolate, certain processed meats, and some other foods. Tyramine, like norepinephrine, can elevate blood pressure. Therefore, the consumption of tyramine-containing foods by a patient taking an MAOI drug can cause elevated blood levels of tyramine and dangerously high blood pressure. In addition, MAOIs can interact with over-the-counter cold and cough medications to cause dangerously high blood pressure. The reason for this is that these cold and cough medications often contain drugs that likewise can increase blood pressure. Because of these potentially serious drug and food interactions, MAOIs are usually only prescribed for people who are thought to be willing and able to manage the many dietary restrictions required by these medications and after other treatment options have failed.
The connection between the amount of alcohol intake, level of depressed mood and how it affects the risks of experiencing consequences from alcoholism were studied in a research done on college students. The study used 4 latent, distinct profiles of different alcohol intake and level of depression; Mild or Moderate Depression, and Heavy or Severe Drinkers. Other indicators consisting of social factors and individual behaviors were also taken into consideration in the research. Results showed that the level of depression as an emotion negatively affected the amount of risky behavior and consequence from drinking, while having an inverse relationship with protective behavioral strategies, which are behavioral actions taken by oneself for protection from the relative harm of alcohol intake. Having an elevated level of depressed mood does therefore lead to greater consequences from drinking.
Since babies, toddlers, and preschool children are usually unable to express their feelings in words, they tend to show sadness in their behaviors. For example, they may become withdrawn, resume old, younger behaviors (regress), or fail to thrive. School-age children might regress in their school performance, develop physical complaints, anxiety, or irritability. Interestingly, some children may try more, sometimes even excessively, to please others when depressed as a way of compensating for their low self-esteem. Therefore, their good grades and apparently good relationships with others may make depression harder to recognize.
Symptoms of depression and anxiety often co-occur in certain disorders. In fact, according to the National Institute of Mental Health, major depression often accompanies panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. While depression and anxiety have distinct clinical features, there is some overlap of symptoms. For example, in both depression and anxiety, irritability, decreased concentration and impaired sleep are common.
Perimenopause, which is the time of life immediately before and after menopause, can last as long as 10 years. While perimenopause and menopause are normal stages of life, perimenopause increases the risk of depression during that time. Also, women who have had depression in the past are five times more likely to develop major depression during perimenopause.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) were one of the first approved antidepressants. Although they are effective, they have been replaced by newer antidepressants that generally cause fewer side effects. Like SNRIs, TCAs work by blocking the reabsorption of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain. Additionally, they block muscarinic M1, histamine H1, and alpha-adrenergic receptors.
In a structured psychotherapy, like cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), the treatment approach for anxiety and depression can vary slightly. Naturally, CBT for these issues will teach you how to work with unhelpful thought traps. And, for either problem, CBT is likely to ask that you do more behaviorally. For anxiety, however, this is to minimize avoidant behavior and to help you disconfirm a feared consequence. For depression, this is to help you experience positive emotion, a surge in energy (even if briefly), or another type of pleasant interaction with the world (the theory being that activating behavior, even when, or especially when your energy or mood is low can result in some type of positive reward).
A person’s personality characteristics are an important factor. When people are depressed, they usually have a very negative view of themselves and the world. They do not appreciate good things, and bad things seem overwhelming. Some people have a tendency to view things this way even when they are not depressed. In other words, they may have a depressive personality style.
Major depression, also often referred to as unipolar depression, is characterized by a combination of symptoms that lasts for at least two weeks in a row, including depressed and/or irritable mood (see symptom list), that interferes with the ability to work, sleep, eat, and enjoy once-pleasurable activities. Difficulties in sleeping or eating can take the form of excessive or insufficient of either behavior. Disabling episodes of depression can occur once, twice, or several times in a lifetime.
For example, abruptly stopping an SSRI such as paroxetine can cause dizziness, nausea, flu-like symptoms, body aches, anxiety, irritability, fatigue, and vivid dreams. These symptoms typically occur within days of abrupt cessation, and can last one to two weeks (up to 21 days). Among the SSRIs, paroxetine and fluvoxamine cause more pronounced discontinuation symptoms than fluoxetine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram, vortioxetine, and vilazodone. Some patients experience discontinuation symptoms despite gradual tapering of the SSRI. Abrupt cessation of venlafaxine, duloxetine, desvenlafaxine, or levomilnacipran can cause discontinuation symptoms similar to those of SSRIs.