But with all three of these treatments, there is the promise of alternative medications to treat depression that might help people feel better — sometimes faster — and hopefully with fewer troubling side effects. No one treatment is right for everyone (that’s why we made our iPhone app called Start, to help people figure out if their antidepressant works), so better research into safe alternatives is important.

Depression can lead to isolation. Loneliness is a common experience with 80% of the population under 18 years of age. A lack of interaction and connection can worsen depression symptoms. Obviously, you can’t make your child have friends or force them to socialize. Some children find it hard to socially interact and make the first move with new friends. That’s why this subject matter is delicate and takes time. You can:


Trazodone is effective in the treatment of major depression. It inhibits reuptake of serotonin and modulates serotonergic neurotransmission. It also significantly blocks histamine (H1) receptors. Its most common side effect is sedation, and thus, it has an off-label indication as a hypnotic. It can be very rarely associated with priapism, a medical emergency and a dangerous side effect of this drug in men. It is often used at a low dosage (25 to 50 mg) as an adjunct to SSRIs to treat insomnia.
You may have heard about an herbal medicine called St. John's wort. Although it is a top-selling botanical product, the FDA has not approved its use as an over-the-counter or prescription medicine for depression, and there are serious concerns about its safety (it should never be combined with a prescription antidepressant) and effectiveness. Do not use St. John’s wort before talking to your health care provider. Other natural products sold as dietary supplements, including omega-3 fatty acids and S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), remain under study but have not yet been proven safe and effective for routine use. For more information on herbal and other complementary approaches and current research, please visit the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health website.

Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.
Occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. It’s common for people to feel anxious if there’s conflict in a relationship, a problem at work, a big test looming or a major decision dead ahead. But anxiety disorders involve more than temporary worry or fear. For people with an anxiety disorder, the anxiety does not go away. It often gets worse over time to the point where feelings interfere with their daily functions.3
Everyone experiences a range of emotions over the course of days and weeks, typically varying based on events and circumstances. When disappointed, we usually feel sad. When we suffer a loss, we grieve. Normally these feelings ebb and flow. They respond to input and changes. By contrast, depression tends to feel heavy and constant. People who are depressed are less likely to be cheered, comforted or consoled. People who recover from depression often welcome the ability to feel normal sadness again, to have a “bad day,” as opposed to a leaden weight on their minds and souls every single day. More

Data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) shows that in 2014, an estimated 15.7 million adults in the United States reported having at least one major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. That is 6.7% of all U.S. adults ages 18 and older. SAMHSA records from 2014 also note that an estimated 2.8 million adolescents reported having at least one major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. That number is 11.4% of all U.S. adolescents ages 12 to 17.

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Depression generally takes one of two major forms. Unipolar depression is what most people mean when they talk about depression: an unremitting state of sadness, apathy, or hopelessness, and loss of energy. It is sometimes called major depression. Bipolar depression, or bipolar disorder, is a condition marked by periods of depression and periods of high-energy mania; people swing between the two poles of mood states, sometimes over the course of days, sometimes over years, often with stable periods in between. 
Pregnancy or breast-feeding. A decision to use antidepressants during pregnancy and breast-feeding is based on the balance between risks and benefits. Overall, the risk of birth defects and other problems for babies of mothers who take antidepressants during pregnancy is low. Still, certain antidepressants, such as paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva), may be discouraged during pregnancy. Work with your doctor to find the best way to manage your depression when you're expecting or planning on becoming pregnant.
In choosing an antidepressant, the doctor will take into account the patient's specific symptoms of depression, as well as his or her age, other medical conditions, and medication side effects. Of particular importance is that children and adolescents continue to use antidepressant medication with caution because of uncommon instances in which minors become acutely worse instead of better while receiving this treatment.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). MAOIs — such as tranylcypromine (Parnate), phenelzine (Nardil) and isocarboxazid (Marplan) — may be prescribed, often when other medications haven't worked, because they can have serious side effects. Using an MAOI requires a strict diet because of dangerous (or even deadly) interactions with foods — such as certain cheeses, pickles and wines — and some medications, including birth control pills, decongestants and certain herbal supplements. Selegiline (Emsam), an MAOI that you stick on your skin as a patch, may cause fewer side effects than other MAOIs. These medications can't be combined with SSRIs.
Major depression is characterized by at least five of the diagnostic symptoms of which at least one of the symptoms is either an overwhelming feeling of sadness or a loss of interest and pleasure in most usual activities. The other symptoms that are associated with major depression include decrease or increase in appetite, insomnia or hypersomnia, psycho motor agitation or retardation, constant fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or excessive and inappropriate guilt, recurrent thoughts of death and suicidal ideation with or without specific plans for committing suicide, and cognitive difficulties, such as, diminished ability to think, concentrate and take decisions. The symptoms persist for two weeks or longer and represent a significant change from previous functioning. Social, occupational, educational, or other important functioning is also impacted. For instance, the person may start missing work or school, or stop going to classes or their usual social activities. 

Maybe. Some medicines, such as some types of antidepressants, may make it more difficult for you to get pregnant, but more research is needed.15 Talk to your doctor about other treatments for depression that don’t involve medicine if you are trying to get pregnant. For example, a type of talk therapy called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) helps women with depression.16 This type of therapy has little to no risk for women trying to get pregnant. During CBT, you work with a mental health professional to explore why you are depressed and train yourself to replace negative thoughts with positive ones. Certain mental health care professionals specialize in depression related to infertility.
Not everyone who is depressed experiences every symptom. Some people experience only a few symptoms while others may experience many. Several persistent symptoms in addition to low mood are required for a diagnosis of major depression, but people with only a few – but distressing – symptoms may benefit from treatment of their “subsyndromal” depression. The severity and frequency of symptoms and how long they last will vary depending on the individual and his or her particular illness. Symptoms may also vary depending on the stage of the illness.
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