However, researchers have also been looking into ketamine for treating depression. And results have been encouraging. Ketamine may have a “rapid onset” of antidepressant effect, meaning that it can help people feel better quickly. That boost may be temporary, lasting just a few days. And unlike antidepressants you can take once a day at home, ketamine must be injected or given by IV. Repeated treatments at a clinic might be necessary to help produce a long-lasting antidepressant effect, and psychiatrists and family doctors might not feel comfortable doing that. But here’s the promise: Quicker relief that helps people start living their lives again — getting out of that depressive funk sooner.
Antidepressants, sometimes in combination with psychotherapy, are often the first treatment people get for depression. If one antidepressant doesn't work well, you might try another drug of the same class or a different class of depression medicines altogether. Your doctor might also try changing the dose. In some cases, your doctor might recommend taking more than one medication for your depression.
Life events and changes that may precipitate depressed mood include (but are not limited to): childbirth, menopause, financial difficulties, unemployment, stress (such as from work, education, family, living conditions etc.), a medical diagnosis (cancer, HIV, etc.), bullying, loss of a loved one, natural disasters, social isolation, rape, relationship troubles, jealousy, separation, and catastrophic injury.[6][7][8] Adolescents may be especially prone to experiencing depressed mood following social rejection, peer pressure, or bullying.[9]
ECT may cause some side effects, including confusion, disorientation, and memory loss. Usually these side effects are short-term, but sometimes memory problems can linger, especially for the months around the time of the treatment course. Advances in ECT devices and methods have made modern ECT safe and effective for the vast majority of patients. Talk to your doctor and make sure you understand the potential benefits and risks of the treatment before giving your informed consent to undergoing ECT.
From 1991-2006, the suicide rate was consistently higher among males. Suicide rates declined among both sexes from 1991-2000; the rate among males decreased from 24.64 to 20.67 suicides per 100,000 and 5.48 to 4.62 suicides per 100,000 among females. From 2000-2006, however, the suicide rates gradually increased among females. Note: All rates are age-adjusted to the standard 2000 population. Rates based on less than 20 deaths are statistically unreliable. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National suicide statistics at a glance: Trends in suicide rates among persons ages 10 years and older, by sex, United States, 1991-2006. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/suicide/statistics/trends01.html. Accessed: May 5, 2010.
National Institute of Mental Health: "Mental Health Medications," "Antidepressants.", Mayo Clinic: "Antidepressants: Selecting one that's right for you.", The New York Times: "Meditation Plus Running as a Treatment for Depression," "To Treat Depression, Drugs or Therapy?"; Pond5; Guido Vrola; Rocketclips, Inc.; pertusinas; Andrey Popov; Thinkstock; EpicStockMedia; AudioJungle.
There is a danger that, in some people, antidepressant treatment will cause an increase, rather than a decrease, in depression. In fact, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that all depression medications include a warning label about the increased risk of suicide in children and young adults. The suicide risk is particularly great during the first month to two months of treatment.
Remember, antidepressants aren’t a cure. Medication may treat some symptoms of depression, but can’t change the underlying issues and situations in your life that are making you depressed. That’s where exercise, therapy, mindfulness meditation, social support and other lifestyle changes come in. These non-drug treatments can produce lasting changes and long-term relief.
There are two circumstances under which an anxiety patient may need specific help for depression. One is if he or she has become so depressed in response to anxiety that they no longer have the energy and motivation to overcome the anxiety disorder. In this case, either medication or cognitive behavioral methods can be used to help overcome the depression. The second is the case of a person who experienced a severe depression before the anxiety disorder appeared, a depression which was not just a reaction to the troubles imposed by the anxiety disorder. This depression, called a primary depression, is likely to require medication treatment.
Self-help approaches to treating depression are best thought of as adjuncts or additions to professionally prescribed treatments. Don't delay treating your depression professionally, or attempt to treat your depression solely on your own. Instead, seek a professional diagnosis at the earliest opportunity. Early diagnosis of depression is critical. The sooner your depression has been properly diagnosed and treated, the sooner you will have a good chance of recovering. Many people think that their low mood is temporary and will resolve by itself. While some depressions are temporary and relatively mild conditions, others really aren't. Delaying treatment in such cases allows symptoms to worsen and can cause serious problems to occur such as severely impaired health and occupational functioning, damage to your interpersonal relationships, and suicidal thoughts and behavior. A small but significant minority of people die from depression-caused suicides each year.
As a matter of fact, many researchers think that antidepressant medications should work more quickly — that people shouldn’t have to take a medication for weeks before they see some improvement. Especially because the most common antidepressants cause short- and long-term side effects — all antidepressants can produce psychological side effects, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) can cause heart problems, and SSRI and SNRI medications cause issues ranging from nausea to weight gain and low sex drive, among others. Alternatives and better options are a good thing.

Depression, or major depressive disorder, is a mood disorder characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or emptiness, along with a lack of interest in activities you once enjoyed. In addition to the emotional manifestations of depression, it can also cause physical issues such as chronic pain or digestive issues. While clinical depression is persistent and can interfere with a person’s ability to function, it’s a very common and highly treatable medical illness.

The key to living with depression is ensuring you’re receiving adequate treatment for it (usually most people benefit from both psychotherapy and medication), and that you are an active participant in your treatment plan on a daily basis. This requires a lot of effort and hard work for most people, but it can be done. Establishing new, healthier routines are important in many people’s management of this condition. Getting regular emotional support — for instance, through an online support group — can also be extremely beneficial.
MAOIs are older drugs that treat depression. They work by stopping the breakdown of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. They’re more difficult for people to take than most other antidepressants because they interact with prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and some foods. They also can’t be combined with stimulants or other antidepressants.
It is important to communicate regularly with your doctor when you are taking an antidepressant, especially if you are prescribed any other medications. Keep track of your symptoms so that they can find the best medication for your depression, and also keep track of any side effects you experience. If you’re having trouble finding a medication that works, drug-genetic testing can help your doctor determine appropriate options. If you become pregnant or are breastfeeding, be sure to ask what medication is safest.
MOAIs are not considered first-line treatment for depression because of the side effects, drug-drug interactions, and dietary restrictions. Common side effects include hypotension, dizziness, dry mouth, gastrointestinal upset, urinary hesitancy, headache and myoclonic jerks. Because of the risk of hypertensive crisis with drugs that specifically inhibit MAOa in the gastrointestinal tract, patients on these medications must follow a low-tyramine diet.

People should try to avoid mixing medications of any kind (prescribed, over the counter, or borrowed) without consulting their doctor. Patients should inform their dentist or any other medical specialist who prescribes a drug that he or she is taking antidepressants. Some medications that are harmless when taken alone can cause severe and dangerous side effects when taken with other medications. This may also be the case for individuals taking supplements or herbal remedies. Some addictive substances, like alcohol (including wine, beer, and liquor), tranquilizers, narcotics or marijuana, reduce the effectiveness of antidepressants and can cause mental health and/or physical symptoms. Patients should avoid these. These and other drugs can be dangerous when the person's body is either intoxicated with or withdrawing from their effects due to increasing the risk of seizure or heart problems in combination with antidepressants medications.
Clinical depression goes by many names, such as “the blues,” biological or clinical depression, and a major depressive episode. But all of these names refer to the same thing: feeling sad and depressed for weeks or months on end — not just a passing blue mood of a day or two. This feeling is most often accompanied by a sense of hopelessness, a lack of energy (or feeling “weighed down”), and taking little or no pleasure in things that once gave a person joy in the past.

Light therapy—This treatment has been proven effective for people with seasonal affective disorder. It involves sitting near a special kind of light for about half an hour a day. Light therapy should not be done without first consulting your doctor because there are side effects to this treatment. It is being researched for use in other kinds of depression as well.
A type of mild to severe depression that typically sets in as the hours of daylight wane in the fall, seasonal affective disorder (SAD) afflicts as many as 6 percent of Americans. Women are particularly at risk, experiencing SAD four times more often than men, as are people who have a relative with depression. People who live far from the equator tend to experience SAD in greater numbers — 9 percent of Alaskans versus 1 percent of Floridians, according to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).
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Depression symptoms take many forms, and no two people’s experiences are exactly alike. A person who’s suffering from this disorder may not seem sad to others. They may instead complain about how they just “can’t get moving,” or are feeling completely unmotivated to do just about anything. Even simple things — like getting dressed in the morning or eating at mealtime — become large obstacles in daily life. People around them, such as their friends and family, notice the change too. Often they want to help, but just don’t know how.


Several types of psychotherapy (also called “talk therapy” or, in a less specific form, counseling) can help people with depression. Examples of evidence-based approaches specific to the treatment of depression include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy (IPT), and problem-solving therapy. More information on psychotherapy is available on the NIMH website and in the NIMH publication Depression: What You Need to Know.
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