Parents may need to provide more comfort and support than usual for their children. It is not unusual for a child to regress to an earlier stage of development following a traumatic event. Children may find it hard to separate from parents, become clingy or emotionally needy during a hospital stay. Children usually show signs of greater independence by the time of discharge. Please talk to your physician if these problems do not improve.

Mental health researchers agree that the causes of depression are much more complex than the chemical imbalance theory suggests. A growing body of research points to other physiological factors, including inflammation, elevated stress hormones, immune system suppression, abnormal activity in certain parts of the brain, nutritional deficiencies, and shrinking brain cells. And these are just the biological causes of depression. Social and psychological factors—such as loneliness, lack of exercise, poor diet, and low self-esteem—also play an enormous role.
Antidepressant medication side effects and drug interactions are barriers to successful treatment for depression. Some side effects of antidepressants resolve with continued use while other side effects can be managed by dose reduction or adding other therapies. Appropriate management of side effects and avoiding drugs and alcohol that may interact with antidepressants may improve the success of depression therapy.
Women are twice as likely to become depressed as men. However, scientists do not know the reason for this difference. Psychological factors also contribute to a person's vulnerability to depression. Thus, persistent deprivation in infancy, physical or sexual abuse, exposure to community violence, clusters of certain personality traits, and inadequate ways of coping (maladaptive coping mechanisms) all can increase the frequency and severity of depressive disorders, with or without inherited vulnerability.
Atypical antidepressants are considered “atypical” because these agents do not fit into any of the other classes of antidepressants. Each medicine in this category has a unique mechanism of action in the body. However, like other antidepressants, atypical antidepressants affect the levels of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine in the brain. Brintellix and Viibryd inhibit reuptakeof serotonin but also act on serotonin receptors.
Express Yourself. Talk about what is bothering you with a therapist or with friends or family members. If you don't feel comfortable talking, then keep a journal and vent through writing. Expressive writing (such as in a journal) for 15 to 20 minutes three or four days in a row helps you get some perspective on what is bothering you. Writing about what you are feeling can also help decrease the pressure you may be feeling in the moment. Talking and journaling about what bothers you are both known to help raise mood.
Some of these side effects are believed to be a direct consequence of the medication's effect on the brain and are relatively similar among various drugs of the same group. Patients who are taking antidepressants sometimes have a dry mouth, headaches, feel faint, anxious, and have a decreased sex drive. These kinds of symptoms are often perceived to be a side effect of the medications. But some of them may be caused by the depression itself.
Depressive signs and symptoms not only include negative thoughts, moods, and behaviors but also by specific changes in bodily functions (for example, excessive crying spells, body aches, low energy or libido, as well as problems with eating, weight, or sleeping). Neurovegetative signs are the changes in functioning associated with clinical depression. This means that the nervous system changes in the brain are thought to cause many physical symptoms that result in a decreased or increased activity level and other problems with functioning.
Jacobsen PL, Mahableshwarkar AR, Serenko M, Chen Y, Trivedi M. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of vortioxetine 10 mg and 20 mg in adults with major depressive disorder. Program and abstracts of the 166th Annual American Psychiatric Association Meeting; May 18-22, 2013; San Francisco, California. Poster NR9-06.
Persistent depressive disorder, formerly referred to as dysthymia, is a less severe but usually more long-lasting type of depression (dysphoric) compared to major depression. It involves long-term (chronic) symptoms that do not disable but prevent the affected person from functioning at "full steam" or from feeling good. Sometimes, people with persistent depressive disorder also experience episodes of major depression. Double-depression is the name for this combination of the two types of depression.
Esketamine (Spravato) is a unique medicine originally developed as an anesthetic and thought to treat depression though its effects on a brain chemical called glutamate. It is administered as a nasal spray and is for use in those who have not responded to treatment by other antidepressants. Its most common side effects include sedation, dissociation (having strange perceptions about time and space, or feeling as if things around you are not real), problems with thinking, and high blood pressure. If any of these side effects occur they are usually mild and temporary.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were launched in the mid to late 1980s. This generation of antidepressants is now the most common class used for depression. Examples include citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), and sertraline (Zoloft). Two medicines, classified as "serotonin modulators and stimulators" or SMS's (meaning they have some similar properties as SSRIs but also affect other brain receptors) are vilazodone (Viibryd) and vortioxetine (Trintellix) Side effects are generally mild, but can be bothersome in some people. They include nausea, stomach upset, sexual problems, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia, weight change, and headaches.
But there’s more to the story. There are medications that help people feel better a lot faster than today’s antidepressant pills. And feeling better sooner means that people can take helpful actions sooner, developing helpful habits for long-lasting change and lifting themselves out depression. And there are other medications that might not work any faster, but have antidepressant effects without some of the most troubling side effects associated with medications like Zoloft (sertraline) or Paxil (paroxetine).
Antidepressants take time – usually 2 to 4 weeks – to work, and often, symptoms such as sleep, appetite, and concentration problems improve before mood lifts, so it is important to give medication a chance before reaching a conclusion about its effectiveness. If you begin taking antidepressants, do not stop taking them without the help of a doctor. Sometimes people taking antidepressants feel better and then stop taking the medication on their own, and the depression returns. When you and your doctor have decided it is time to stop the medication, usually after a course of 6 to 12 months, the doctor will help you slowly and safely decrease your dose. Stopping them abruptly can cause withdrawal symptoms.
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