Social abuse, such as bullying, are defined as actions of singling out and causing harm on vulnerable individuals. In order to capture a day-to-day observation of the relationship between the damaging effects of social abuse, the victim’s mental health and depressive mood, a study was conducted on whether individuals would have a higher level of depressed mood when exposed to daily acts of negative behavior. The result concluded that being exposed daily to abusive behaviors such as bullying has a positive relationship to depressed mood on the same day.
Clinical trials are research studies that look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat diseases and conditions, including depression. During clinical trials, some participants receive treatments under study that might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. Other participants (in the “control group”) receive a standard treatment, such as a medication already on the market, an inactive placebo medication, or no treatment. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Although individual participants may benefit from being part of a clinical trial, participants should be aware that the primary purpose of a clinical trial is to gain new scientific knowledge so that others may be better helped in the future.
Additionally, the symptoms must last for two or more weeks and cause significant disruption of life functions. But to be diagnosed with dysthymia, a person need only have two of the recognized diagnostic symptoms, one of which is a mood that is persistently dark or gloomy, and the symptoms must be present on most days for at least two years. It is possible to have periods of time that are “symptom free,” but the break cannot last longer than two months.
On the other end of the spectrum, researchers are exploring a salvage medication for people with suicidal depression: ketamine, a street drug that can induce hallucinations and out-of-body experiences but that can also provide astonishingly swift relief from depression. Ketamine is currently undergoing clinical trials; meanwhile, physicians warn that this drug can be abused.
Depression and anxiety treatment begins first with recognizing if you have symptoms. Both often appear as physical symptoms, some of which are similar to those seen in migraine. For example, problems with sleep and appetite changes, being easily upset, trouble concentrating, and low energy are all symptoms of migraine, depression, and anxiety. As a result, it is better to pay attention to thoughts and feelings. Depression usually involves strong feelings of sadness or hopelessness that last two weeks or more. Some migraine patients who are depressed do not feel sad or down, but are simply not as interested in activities that they normally enjoy. Others include feeling worthless, guilty, or thoughts of suicide.
Antidepressants are usually taken daily. The goal in the first few weeks and months is to relieve the symptoms and, if possible, make the depression go away. Once that has been achieved, the treatment is continued for at least four to nine months. This continuation therapy is necessary to stop the symptoms from coming back. The medication is sometimes taken for longer to prevent relapses. The duration of treatment also depends on how the symptoms develop over time and whether there is an increased risk of relapse. Some people take antidepressants for several years.
While some illnesses have a specific medical cause, making treatment straightforward, depression is more complicated. Depression is not just the result of a chemical imbalance in the brain that can be simply cured with medication. It’s caused by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors. In other words, your lifestyle choices, relationships, and coping skills matter just as much—if not more so—than genetics.
There is a danger that, in some people, antidepressant treatment will cause an increase, rather than a decrease, in depression. In fact, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that all depression medications include a warning label about the increased risk of suicide in children and young adults. The suicide risk is particularly great during the first month to two months of treatment.
Mirtazapine (Remeron), another antidepressant, is a tetracyclic compound (four-ring chemical structure). It works at somewhat different biochemical sites and in different ways than the other medications. It affects serotonin but at a postsynaptic site (after the connection between nerve cells). It also increases histamine levels, which can cause drowsiness. For this reason, patients take mirtazapine at bedtime; physicians often prescribe mirtazapine for people who have trouble falling asleep. Like the SNRIs, it also works by increasing levels in the norepinephrine system. Other than causing sedation, this medication has side effects that are similar to those of the SSRIs.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors were the first antidepressants discovered, in the early 1950s. They are widely effective in a broad range of affective and anxiety disorders. MAOIs irreversibly block monamine oxidase, which has 2 forms, including MOAa and MOAb. MAOa breaks down serotonin and norepinephrine. MOAb metabolizes phenylethylamine. Both forms break down dopamine.
In the practice of evidence-based medicine, it’s considered less wise to prescribe treatments that rely too heavily on hypothetical explanations for how they might work in the body. Instead, we should rely on high-quality, low-bias research that proves which treatments work best. In that light, take the Botox research — and for that matter, Celebrex and ketamine too — with a few grains of salt. The Botox review looked at a very small number of patients, and the researchers were looking at their own original clinical trials. A couple of them have ties to Botox’s maker, Allergan. All three approaches need more research on benefits and harms.
Much work remains to help determine the best treatment options for different types of patients. We also need to better understand the impact that treating depression and anxiety has on headache. Remember, it is extremely important to obtain best treatment for each disorder: the depression or anxiety and the headache disorder. Safe and effective drug and behavioral therapies are available, so talk with your provider about any symptoms that you have.
There are two circumstances under which an anxiety patient may need specific help for depression. One is if he or she has become so depressed in response to anxiety that they no longer have the energy and motivation to overcome the anxiety disorder. In this case, either medication or cognitive behavioral methods can be used to help overcome the depression. The second is the case of a person who experienced a severe depression before the anxiety disorder appeared, a depression which was not just a reaction to the troubles imposed by the anxiety disorder. This depression, called a primary depression, is likely to require medication treatment.
Depression can lead to isolation. Loneliness is a common experience with 80% of the population under 18 years of age. A lack of interaction and connection can worsen depression symptoms. Obviously, you can’t make your child have friends or force them to socialize. Some children find it hard to socially interact and make the first move with new friends. That’s why this subject matter is delicate and takes time. You can:
In the 1950s and '60s, health care professionals divided depression into two types, endogenous and neurotic. Endogenous means that the depression comes from within the body, perhaps of genetic origin, or comes out of nowhere. Neurotic or reactive depression has a clear environmental precipitating factor, such as the death of a spouse, or other significant loss, such as the loss of a job. In the 1970s and '80s, the focus of attention shifted from the cause of depression to its effects on the afflicted people. That is to say, whatever the cause in a particular case, what are the symptoms and impaired functions that experts can agree make up a depressive illness? Although experts sometimes dispute these issues, most agree on the following:
The presence of maternal-fetal stress is another risk factor for depression. It seems that maternal stress during pregnancy can increase the chance that the child will be prone to depression as an adult, particularly if there is a genetic vulnerability. Researchers believe that the mother's circulating stress hormones can influence the development of the fetus' brain during pregnancy. This altered fetal brain development occurs in ways that predispose the child to the risk of depression as an adult. Further research is still necessary to clarify how this happens. Again, this situation shows the complex interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental stress, in this case, the stress of the mother on the fetus.
Antidepressants are medicines that treat depression. They may help improve the way your brain uses certain chemicals that control mood or stress. You may need to try several different antidepressant medicines before finding the one that improves your symptoms and has manageable side effects. A medication that has helped you or a close family member in the past will often be considered.