不负责任的说,根据我自己和见过抑郁患者来看,抑郁的人一般都是比较较真,对自己苛刻,对别人善良,敏感。抑郁的原因有遗传,有失恋,家里出事,学业工作人际关系等等等等上面的人已经说的很清楚了。从表现上看抑郁和普通的低潮最大的区别就是不可控制自己的情绪。而精神上最大的区别在于和常人产生厌世厌人低落情绪不同,抑郁症患者在这些背后往往都有一个他终极最讨厌的人,那就是他自己。在他们诸多觉得没意思,讨厌,肮脏的事物中,他们最为憎恨自己。我知道这个世界上对自己很满意的人不多,但是正常人不会真正特别责怪自己,厌恶自己,划伤自己,自残自杀。抑郁症患者的厌世里面绝对包含着一个自己。他们可能很多认识到这样的憎恨自己不对,然后认为自己怎么会做憎恨自己这种不对的事情呢,不能好好说话像那些好人坚强的人一样好好活着嘛? 而更加憎恨自己。这也是抑郁的一个典型恶性循环。不负责任的说抑郁症患者大都试图改变自己的这种状态,有的人成功了,有的人暂时失败着,有的人就彻底失败了,举个例子张国荣。抑郁的人一方面觉得自己真的无能为力,是自己在抑郁做不到,需要别人理解,一方面又会责怪自己:开什么玩笑,别人断胳膊少腿都没有抑郁你他娘的抑郁什么什么做不到。。。绝对不是抑郁,就是个懦夫,懒惰,胆小鬼,没能力。然后久了就会觉得像我这种没事还抑郁什么xx玩意的废柴,有什么资格活在世界上,看看人家。我说过,抑郁的人一般真的很较真。
后来,换了工作之后,症状更加严重。我开始常常拉扯自己额前的头发,是情不自禁地抓着头发往上拉,因为我几乎每天都头晕,而且持续的时间越来越长,到最后,每天只要醒着就会头晕,拉扯头发可以让我稍微清醒一些。头晕最严重的时候,走路都需要扶着墙。每天都是没睡醒的状态,刚从床上起来,刷牙的时候就可以闭着眼睛睡着。在办公室也是强忍着不打瞌睡,实在忍不住了,就跑厕所洗个脸,或者干脆在隔间里睡一会。工作总是无法好好完成,一遇到稍微有点麻烦的事情就开始烦躁不安,只能草草做完了事。还有,总是坐不稳站不安。坐着一段时间之后就开始想往地上蹲,控制不住地想往地上坐。只能用臀部上部接近尾龙骨的部分支撑在椅子上坐着,只有这样我才能坐得久一点。站着的时候必须找东西靠着,有时候靠墙上,有时候靠着桌子,否则就会开始烦躁不安,感觉自己马上就会晕过去或者突然猝死一样。另外,我还特别怕吵闹,如果身边的人说话稍微大声一些,就会觉得很烦躁,很想逃离出去。感觉所有的噪声在拼命地往我脑子里钻。那段时间我非常抵触跟别人交谈,不必要的社交也都尽可能推掉,甚至上司请吃饭我都不想去。我开始越来越少说话,因为说多了会累,气接不上(这再次让我怀疑我肾虚)。因此,一整天,如非必要,我绝不开口说话。对于刚换了新工作的我来说,这等于是将自己与所有同事都隔绝开了。因此,每天一上班,我就觉得周围的气氛异常的压抑,大家都很陌生,即使我已经在那里上班超过两个月了,可是,依然无法跟身边的同事好好交流。上班成了一件非常痛苦的事情。

This practice parameter describes the epidemiology, clinical picture, differential diagnosis, course, risk factors, and pharmacological and psychotherapy treatments of children and adolescents with major depressive or dysthymic disorders. Side effects of the antidepressants, particularly the risk of suicidal ideation and behaviors are discussed. Recommendations regarding the assessment and the acute, continuation, and maintenance treatment of these disorders are based on the existent scientific evidence as well as the current clinical practice.
不负责任的说,根据我自己和见过抑郁患者来看,抑郁的人一般都是比较较真,对自己苛刻,对别人善良,敏感。抑郁的原因有遗传,有失恋,家里出事,学业工作人际关系等等等等上面的人已经说的很清楚了。从表现上看抑郁和普通的低潮最大的区别就是不可控制自己的情绪。而精神上最大的区别在于和常人产生厌世厌人低落情绪不同,抑郁症患者在这些背后往往都有一个他终极最讨厌的人,那就是他自己。在他们诸多觉得没意思,讨厌,肮脏的事物中,他们最为憎恨自己。我知道这个世界上对自己很满意的人不多,但是正常人不会真正特别责怪自己,厌恶自己,划伤自己,自残自杀。抑郁症患者的厌世里面绝对包含着一个自己。他们可能很多认识到这样的憎恨自己不对,然后认为自己怎么会做憎恨自己这种不对的事情呢,不能好好说话像那些好人坚强的人一样好好活着嘛? 而更加憎恨自己。这也是抑郁的一个典型恶性循环。不负责任的说抑郁症患者大都试图改变自己的这种状态,有的人成功了,有的人暂时失败着,有的人就彻底失败了,举个例子张国荣。抑郁的人一方面觉得自己真的无能为力,是自己在抑郁做不到,需要别人理解,一方面又会责怪自己:开什么玩笑,别人断胳膊少腿都没有抑郁你他娘的抑郁什么什么做不到。。。绝对不是抑郁,就是个懦夫,懒惰,胆小鬼,没能力。然后久了就会觉得像我这种没事还抑郁什么xx玩意的废柴,有什么资格活在世界上,看看人家。我说过,抑郁的人一般真的很较真。
声明:此回答是一名长期抑郁症患者的经验总结,原文适用于中度抑郁症及以下自救,更新适用于想要关爱身边抑郁症患者的朋友。虽然本人读过不少关于抑郁症的书(此文设计基本概念都有权威出处),参加过一些关于抑郁,焦虑,自信心的正规医疗自救培训,但目前本人没有经过任何正规系统的专业学习,答案中的任何观点都属于完全业余,严肃问题请一定寻医问诊,欢迎指正。话题经验相关:我本人因为博士转专业和实验不顺长期抑郁。我有一个非常善良温柔三观正,并陪伴我多年的男朋友(非抑郁症),感谢他的存在。鉴于有太多很爱护自己另一半的朋友问我这个问题,想要为身边患有抑郁症的朋友做些什么却又不知道该怎么做;我觉得有必要在这里简明扼要地地说明几个问题及注意事项。又以及,鄙原文上传后的这些年获得了一些新的知识和感受,我在这里做一次更新。-20160527
第二,加强营养。良好的饮食结构可以使我们身体机能得到很大的提高,抑郁症患者在日常治疗过程中,除了按时吃药以外日常饮食也是非常需要注意的,有些食物对改善抑郁有较大的益处。如深海瑰宝——鱼。鱼体内的成分Omega-3脂肪酸是天然的抵抗抑郁症的瑰宝。常食用海鱼,会明显降低抑郁症的发病、缓解抑郁情绪。还有快乐水果——香蕉、葡萄柚、樱桃等,其中,香蕉有一种可以令人兴奋和提高情绪精神的物质——生物碱,非常有利于增加人体大脑血清素。血清素的增加有助于,神经细胞的传递,提高大脑神经系统,这也是抑郁症的食疗方法之一。心情法宝——大蒜、南瓜。大蒜和南瓜都是帮助人们恢复心情的法宝。常吃大蒜人们就不会感觉劳累和焦虑,对急躁情绪有所缓解。南瓜中的维生素可以帮助人体补充B6和铁,南瓜被称为天然的人体汽油。合理的饮食对人体本身产生积极因素,都是对抗抑郁的好东西,但是我们还是要注意有些食物不适合患者,如酒、浓茶、咖啡、油炸辛辣等食物,尽可能避免食用。
很多正在经历抑郁症的人,并非不知道自己正在经历什么,并非对自己的感受缺乏自知。但是他们缺乏的是应对抑郁症的经验,也就是说即便是觉察到了自己正在经历的困境,也不知道该如何应对。我在第一次出现抑郁症状的时候,对抑郁症是一无所知的。那是2005年,那时候我刚上大一。抑郁症这个概念开始在中文媒体上受到广泛的关注,我个人感觉,是在张国荣自杀之后。张国荣去世之前很少有人知道还有抑郁症这回事。他自杀是在2003年,而2005年我对抑郁症仍然知之甚少。直到今日,很多人对于抑郁症是怎么回事也只是了解皮毛。何况,这本来就不是什么轻松的话题,若不是亲朋挚友间有亲历的人,恐怕一般人也不会有兴趣了解。但是现在的时代毕竟不同于12年前。今天我们使用手机上网、使用各种社交媒体来快速了解信息。我的母亲跟我说,她是在电视节目里看到一个专家讲解抑郁症,才终于对我的感受有了一些了解。2005年的时候,我休学在家,她每天看到就鼓励我说,“要开心一点,你看我过得多开心,你也可以开心起来的”。现在,她会说,她依然无法理解我的感受,但是至少她知道了什么样的话说了是没用的。

后来,换了工作之后,症状更加严重。我开始常常拉扯自己额前的头发,是情不自禁地抓着头发往上拉,因为我几乎每天都头晕,而且持续的时间越来越长,到最后,每天只要醒着就会头晕,拉扯头发可以让我稍微清醒一些。头晕最严重的时候,走路都需要扶着墙。每天都是没睡醒的状态,刚从床上起来,刷牙的时候就可以闭着眼睛睡着。在办公室也是强忍着不打瞌睡,实在忍不住了,就跑厕所洗个脸,或者干脆在隔间里睡一会。工作总是无法好好完成,一遇到稍微有点麻烦的事情就开始烦躁不安,只能草草做完了事。还有,总是坐不稳站不安。坐着一段时间之后就开始想往地上蹲,控制不住地想往地上坐。只能用臀部上部接近尾龙骨的部分支撑在椅子上坐着,只有这样我才能坐得久一点。站着的时候必须找东西靠着,有时候靠墙上,有时候靠着桌子,否则就会开始烦躁不安,感觉自己马上就会晕过去或者突然猝死一样。另外,我还特别怕吵闹,如果身边的人说话稍微大声一些,就会觉得很烦躁,很想逃离出去。感觉所有的噪声在拼命地往我脑子里钻。那段时间我非常抵触跟别人交谈,不必要的社交也都尽可能推掉,甚至上司请吃饭我都不想去。我开始越来越少说话,因为说多了会累,气接不上(这再次让我怀疑我肾虚)。因此,一整天,如非必要,我绝不开口说话。对于刚换了新工作的我来说,这等于是将自己与所有同事都隔绝开了。因此,每天一上班,我就觉得周围的气氛异常的压抑,大家都很陌生,即使我已经在那里上班超过两个月了,可是,依然无法跟身边的同事好好交流。上班成了一件非常痛苦的事情。
BACKGROUND: In 2001, the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) partnered to produce evidence-based clinical guidelines for the treatment of depressive disorders. A revision of these guidelines was undertaken by CANMAT in 2008-2009 to reflect advances in the field. There is renewed interest in refined approaches to brain stimulation, particularly for treatment resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: The CANMAT guidelines are based on a question-answer format to enhance accessibility to clinicians. An evidence-based format was used with updated systematic reviews of the literature and recommendations were graded according to Level of Evidence using pre-defined criteria. Lines of Treatment were identified based on criteria that included evidence and expert clinical support. This section on "Neurostimulation Therapies" is one of 5 guidelines articles. RESULTS: Among the four forms of neurostimulation reviewed in this section, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has the most extensive evidence, spanning seven decades. Repetitive transcranial magnetic (rTMS) and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) have been approved to treat depressed adults in both Canada and the United States with a much smaller evidence base. There is also emerging evidence that deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective for otherwise treatment resistant depression, but this is an investigational approach in 2009. LIMITATIONS: Compared to other modalities for the treatment of MDD, the data based is limited by the relatively small numbers of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and small sample sizes. CONCLUSIONS: There is most evidence to support ECT as a first-line treatment under specific circumstances and rTMS as a second-line treatment. Evidence to support VNS is less robust and DBS remains an investigational treatment.
Patients with chronic depression (CD) by definition respond less well to standard forms of psychotherapy, so they are more likely to be high utilizers of psychiatric resources. Therefore, the aim of this guidance paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of current psychotherapy for CD. The evidence of efficacy is critically reviewed and recommendations for clinical applications and research are given. We performed a systematic literature search to identify studies on psychotherapy in CD, evaluated the retrieved documents and developed evidence tables and recommendations through a consensus process among experts and stakeholders. We developed 5 recommendations which may help providers to select psychotherapeutic treatment options for this patient group. The EPA considers both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy to be effective in CD and recommends both approaches. The best effect is achieved by combined treatment with psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, which should therefore be the treatment of choice. The EPA recommends psychotherapy with an interpersonal focus (e.g. the Cognitive Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy [CBASP]) for the treatment of CD and a personalized approach based on the patient's preferences. The DSM-5 nomenclature of persistent depressive disorder (PDD), which includes CD subtypes, has been an important step towards a more differentiated treatment and understanding of these complex affective disorders. Apart from dysthymia, ICD-10 still does not provide a separate entity for a chronic course of depression. The differences between patients with acute episodic depression and those with CD need to be considered in the planning of treatment. Specific psychotherapeutic treatment options are recommended for patients with CD. Patients with chronic forms of depression should be offered tailored psychotherapeutic treatments that address their specific needs and deficits. Combination treatment with psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy is the first-line treatment recommended for CD. More research is needed to develop more effective treatments for CD, especially in the longer term, and to identify which patients benefit from which treatment algorithm.
And one of the things that often gets lost in discussions of depression is that you know it's ridiculous. You know it's ridiculous while you're experiencing it. You know that most people manage to listen to their messages and eat lunch and organize themselves to take a shower and go out the front door and that it's not a big deal, and yet you are nonetheless in its grip and you are unable to figure out any way around it. And so I began to feel myself doing less and thinking less and feeling less. It was a kind of nullity.
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