Over the years, the technique of ECT has improved from the procedure that still invokes stigma in the minds of many. Physicians administer the treatment in the hospital under anesthesia so that people receiving ECT do not hurt themselves or feel emotional or physical pain during the induced seizures or at any other time. Most patients undergo six to 10 treatments. A health care professional passes an electrical current through the brain to cause a controlled seizure, which typically lasts for 20-90 seconds. The patient is awake in five to 10 minutes. The most common side effect is short-term memory loss, which usually resolves quickly. Doctors safely perform ECT as an outpatient procedure.
DISCLAIMER: The information contained herein should NOT be used as a substitute for the advice of an appropriately qualified and licensed physician or other healthcare provider. This article mentions drugs that were FDA-approved and available at the time of publication and may not include all possible drug interactions or all FDA warnings or alerts. The author of this page explicitly does not endorse this drug or any specific treatment method. If you have health questions or concerns about interactions, please check with your physician or go to the FDA site for a comprehensive list of warnings.
Well, as with ketamine, a lot more high-quality research — especially that looks at treatment over a long period of time — is necessary to figure out whether they can. But early results with Celebrex suggest that there may be a modest effect. Other anti-inflammatory drugs might work too, but so far the evidence points to Celebrex being most effective. This might be good news for people whose depression is either linked to inflammation, or who may need to take a pain medication anyway, since the medication can do dual duty. Celebrex and similar drugs are not always safe: They can cause side effects over the short and long-term — especially serious risks for some people include higher blood pressure and bleeding). But those risks may be more acceptable than those that come with today’s standard antidepressants.
Total openness is important. You should talk to your doctor about all of your symptoms, important milestones in your life and any history of abuse or trauma. Also tell your doctor about past history of depression or other emotional symptoms in yourself or family members, medical history, medications you are taking — prescribed or over-the-counter, how depression has affected your daily life and whether you ever think about suicide. More
along with the allopathic medicines i  think do any art of living programs specially (sudharshana kriya) and start  ayurveda ..as u go further slowly reduce  and stop the allopathic medicines and fully take the ayurvedic medicines...regular do yoga ,pranayama,exercises and medicines..you will get 100 percent results.... http://www.artofliving.org/sudarshan-kriya
Problem-focused coping leads to lower level of depression. Focusing on the problem allows for the subjects to view the situation in an objective way, evaluating the severity of the threat in an unbiased way, thus it lowers the probability of having depressive responses. On the other hand, emotion-focused coping promotes depressed mood in stressful situations. The person has been contaminated with too much irrelevant information and loses focus on the options for resolving the problem. They fail to consider the potential consequences and choose the option that minimizes stress and maximizes well-being.
If your symptoms are mild, tending to ebb and flow between present and absent, or if you have had formal treatment previously and are concerned about relapse, self-help interventions can be a reasonable place to start. These approaches typically involve little to no guidance by a professional. They can include the use of self-help books, electronic applications that adapt evidence-based psychotherapies, or Smartphone programs that offer an easy way to practice skills that target a highly relevant symptom (such as mindfulness meditation for anger or anxiety).​

Medication. Many people with depression find that taking prescribed medications called antidepressants can help improve their mood and coping skills. Talk to your doctor about whether they are right for you. If your doctor writes you a prescription for an antidepressant‚ ask exactly how you should take the medication. If you are already using nicotine replacement therapy or another medication to help you quit smoking, be sure to let your doctor know. Several antidepressant medications are available‚ so you and your doctor have options to choose from. Sometimes it takes several tries to find the best medication and the right dose for you, so be patient. Also be aware of the following important information:


Buspirone is marketed as an antianxiety medication; however, it may have antidepressant effects at doses above 45 mg/day. The antidepressant effects may increase when buspirone is used in combination with SSRIs and TCAs in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Buspirone is a partial 5-HT1A agonist with serotonergic and some dopaminergic effects in the CNS. It has anxiolytic effects but may take up to 2-3 weeks for full efficacy.


Medication may be right for you if depression is interfering with your ability to function in an important part of your life—work, school, or in your relationships, for example. However, many people use antidepressants when therapy, exercise, or self-help strategies would work just as well or better—minus the unpleasant side effects. Even if you decide to take medication, it’s a good idea to pursue therapy and lifestyle changes that can help you get to the bottom of your underlying issues and develop the tools to beat depression for good. See Coping with Depression and Depression Treatment
Patients with generalized anxiety disorder can’t control their constant worry. They worry about life events that may never even happen. They are “worry warts” who often expect the worst possible outcome of every situation. Physical symptoms such as fatigue, trouble concentrating, and having tense muscles are common in these patients. Phobias are fears of specific objects or places, such as an intense fear of social interactions that causes the patient to avoid most social situations (social phobia). Physicians and mental health professionals assess these symptoms through interviews, surveys, and observing patient behavior.
Bipolar II disorder is a significant variant of the bipolar disorders. (The usual form of bipolar disorder is referred to as bipolar I disorder.) Bipolar II disorder is a syndrome in which the affected person has repeated depressive episodes punctuated by hypomania (mini-highs). These euphoric states in bipolar II do not completely meet the criteria for the full manic episodes that occur in bipolar I.
When psychotherapy and antidepressants don’t work, clinicians may turn to other treatment options. Usually the first is to try and adjunct medication to the existing antidepressant medication. In more serious or treatment-resistant cases, additional treatment options may be tried (like ECT or rTMS). Ketamine infusion treatments also appear to be effective, but are generally not covered by insurance and the long-term risks are unknown.

When in the depressed cycle, the person can experience any or all of the symptoms of a depressive condition. When in the manic cycle, any or all of the symptoms listed later in this article under mania may be experienced. Mania often affects thinking, judgment, and social behavior in ways that cause serious problems and embarrassment. For example, indiscriminate or otherwise unsafe sexual practices or unwise business or financial decisions may be made when an individual is in a manic phase.
Spend Time With Pets. Many depressed people find that it is comforting to spend time with their pets. Pets offer unconditional love and do not make complicated demands on depressed people. They are often great listeners (even though they don't really understand what you are saying). Feeding pets is a loving act. Taking pets for a walk (if that is appropriate) can become a regular exercise routine with multiple benefits for both pet and owner.
Some medical conditions can trigger depressive symptoms in individuals. This is called depressive disorder due to another medical condition. Endocrine and reproductive system disorders are commonly associated with depressive symptoms. For example, people with low levels of the thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism) often experience fatigue, weight gain, irritability, memory loss, and low mood. When the hypothyroidism is treated it usually reduces the depression. Cushing's syndrome is another hormonal disorder caused by high levels of the hormone cortisol which can also cause depressive symptoms. Other conditions that have been found to cause depression include conditions such as HIV/AIDS, diabetes, strokes, Parkinson’s disease etc.
The most commonly diagnosed form of depression is Major Depressive Disorder. In 2015, around 16.1 million adults aged 18 years or older in the U.S. had experienced at least one major depressive episode in the last year, which represented 6.7 percent of all American adults. Depression is the leading cause of disability in the United States among people ages 15-44.  View the NIMH website for statistics from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health
Data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) shows that in 2014, an estimated 15.7 million adults in the United States reported having at least one major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. That is 6.7% of all U.S. adults ages 18 and older. SAMHSA records from 2014 also note that an estimated 2.8 million adolescents reported having at least one major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. That number is 11.4% of all U.S. adolescents ages 12 to 17.
Reach out to other people. Isolation fuels depression, so reach out to friends and loved ones, even if you feel like being alone or don’t want to be a burden to others. The simple act of talking to someone face-to-face about how you feel can be an enormous help. The person you talk to doesn’t have to be able to fix you. He or she just needs to be a good listener—someone who’ll listen attentively without being distracted or judging you.

Adoration Aesthetic emotions Affection Agitation Agony Amusement Anger Anguish Annoyance Anxiety Apathy Arousal Attraction Awe Boredom Calmness Compassion Contempt Contentment Defeat Depression Desire Disappointment Disgust Ecstasy Embarrassment Vicarious Empathy Enthrallment Enthusiasm Envy Euphoria Excitement Fear Flow (psychology) Frustration Gratitude Grief Guilt Happiness Hatred Hiraeth Homesickness Hope Horror Hostility Humiliation Hygge Hysteria Infatuation Insecurity Insult Interest Irritation Isolation Jealousy Joy Limerence Loneliness Longing Love Lust Melancholy Mono no aware Neglect Nostalgia Panic Passion Pity Pleasure Pride hubris Rage Regret Rejection Remorse Resentment Sadness Saudade Schadenfreude Sehnsucht Sentimentality Shame Shock Shyness Sorrow Spite Stress Suffering Surprise Sympathy Tenseness Wonder Worry
TCAs have been in use since the 1950s when imipramine (Tofranil) was shown to be effective for treating depression. TCAs primarily work by increasing the level of norepinephrine in the brain and to a lesser extent serotonin levels. Some TCAs also are antihistamines (block the action of histamine) or anticholinergic (block the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter), and these additional actions allow for uses of TCAs other than for treating depression as well as additional side effects.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms vary from person to person, and can last for days to months without periods of remission. Symptoms of MS include sexual problems and problems with the bowel, bladder, eyes, muscles, speech, swallowing, brain, and nervous system. The early symptoms and signs of multiple sclerosis usually start between age 20 and 40. MS in children, teens, and those over age 40 is rare. Treatment options for multiple sclerosis vary depending on the type and severity of symptoms. Medications may be prescribed to manage MS symptoms.
The connection between the amount of alcohol intake, level of depressed mood and how it affects the risks of experiencing consequences from alcoholism were studied in a research done on college students. The study used 4 latent, distinct profiles of different alcohol intake and level of depression; Mild or Moderate Depression, and Heavy or Severe Drinkers. Other indicators consisting of social factors and individual behaviors were also taken into consideration in the research. Results showed that the level of depression as an emotion negatively affected the amount of risky behavior and consequence from drinking, while having an inverse relationship with protective behavioral strategies, which are behavioral actions taken by oneself for protection from the relative harm of alcohol intake. Having an elevated level of depressed mood does therefore lead to greater consequences from drinking.[32]
Understanding the main pharmaceutical options requires becoming familiar with a number of acronyms: SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), SNRIs (serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), NDRIs (norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitors), TCAs (tricyclic antidepressants), and MAOIs (monoamine oxidase inhibitors). These represent categories of drugs, grouped together because of their effect on various neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain.
Seasonal affective disorder is characterized by the onset of depression during the winter months, when there is less natural sunlight. This depression generally lifts during spring and summer. Winter depression, typically accompanied by social withdrawal, increased sleep, and weight gain, predictably returns every year in seasonal affective disorder.
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