The new world of pharmacogenetics holds the promise of actually keeping the genes responsible for depression turned off so as to avoid the illnesses completely. Also, by studying genes, we are learning more about the matching of patients with treatment. This kind of information can tell us which patients do well on which types of drugs and psychotherapy regimens.
Occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. It’s common for people to feel anxious if there’s conflict in a relationship, a problem at work, a big test looming or a major decision dead ahead. But anxiety disorders involve more than temporary worry or fear. For people with an anxiety disorder, the anxiety does not go away. It often gets worse over time to the point where feelings interfere with their daily functions.3

For some people, the reduced daylight hours of winter lead to a form of depression known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD). SAD affects about 1% to 2% of the population, particularly women and young people. SAD can make you feel like a completely different person to who you are in the summer: hopeless, sad, tense, or stressed, with no interest in friends or activities you normally love. SAD usually begins in fall or winter when the days become shorter and remains until the brighter days of spring.
Programs that use mental health professionals to teach thinking skills (cognitive techniques) that assist in coping with stress seem to be effective in preventing depression. Key aspects in the prevention of postpartum depression include helping new mothers decrease those specific aspects of their lives that may contribute to depression, like having little social support and poor adjustment to their marriage or other domestic union. Engaging in religious or spiritual practices can often prevent depression, thought to be the result of decreasing stress, increasing a sense of hope, and providing a sense of community. On the other hand, people who feel they are unable to live up to the standards set by their family, societal, religious, or spiritual practices may feel a sense of guilt that becomes a risk factor for depression.

Antidepressants are usually taken daily. The goal in the first few weeks and months is to relieve the symptoms and, if possible, make the depression go away. Once that has been achieved, the treatment is continued for at least four to nine months. This continuation therapy is necessary to stop the symptoms from coming back. The medication is sometimes taken for longer to prevent relapses. The duration of treatment also depends on how the symptoms develop over time and whether there is an increased risk of relapse. Some people take antidepressants for several years.
See a depression expert. It's important to talk with a trained professional during your treatment. Although psychologists cannot prescribe medication, they are well-trained in psychiatric assessment and psychotherapy. You can work with a psychologist while taking antidepressants prescribed by your regular doctor, or you can see a psychiatrist for both your depression medication and talk therapy. Try to find someone who has a lot of experience helping people with treatment-resistant depression. Mood disorder experts can often be found through university-based hospitals or organizations such as the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology, the American Psychiatric Association, or the Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA) "Find a Pro" online search engine.
Data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) shows that in 2014, an estimated 15.7 million adults in the United States reported having at least one major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. That is 6.7% of all U.S. adults ages 18 and older. SAMHSA records from 2014 also note that an estimated 2.8 million adolescents reported having at least one major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. That number is 11.4% of all U.S. adolescents ages 12 to 17.
Major depression, also often referred to as unipolar depression, is characterized by a combination of symptoms that lasts for at least two weeks in a row, including depressed and/or irritable mood (see symptom list), that interferes with the ability to work, sleep, eat, and enjoy once-pleasurable activities. Difficulties in sleeping or eating can take the form of excessive or insufficient of either behavior. Disabling episodes of depression can occur once, twice, or several times in a lifetime.

Atypical antidepressants work in a variety of ways. Thus, atypical antidepressants are not TCAs, SSRIs, or SNRIs, but they can be effective in treating depression for many people nonetheless. More specifically, they increase the level of certain neurochemicals in the brain synapses (between nerves, where nerves communicate with each other). Examples of atypical antidepressants include nefazodone (Serzone), trazodone (Desyrel), and bupropion (Wellbutrin). Serzone has come under scrutiny due to rare cases of life-threatening liver failure that have occurred in some individuals while taking it. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also approved bupropion (Zyban) for use in weaning from addiction to cigarettes. This drug is also being studied for treating attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These problems affect many children and adults and restrict their ability to manage their impulses and activity level, focus, or concentrate on one thing at a time.
Mindfulness-based therapy, self-practiced mindfulness, and meditation can reduce symptoms of depression and be effective coping tools. By living in the moment and getting in touch with your external surroundings, you can temporarily detach from the internal strife of your depression. You can also do this as part of yoga, another technique therapists frequently recommend.

Do your best to not be this way. Instead, choose to accept your diagnosis and to take the medications and other therapies that have been prescribed for you regularly. Make it a point to talk with your doctor when you are not getting relief as expected or new symptoms develop so that your doctor has a chance to address these concerns. Tell the people that you are close to that you are clinically depressed and ask for their help in overcoming the problem. For instance, your friends can help you resist the urge to withdraw and isolate, and give you feedback as to how you appear to be doing both physically and emotionally. Allow the time necessary for medication therapies to pass before you decide that they aren't working. In general, accept your diagnosis and cooperate as best you can with the people who are trying to help you recover.


Sadness can be a difficult emotion to deal with, not only due to the pain it causes, but also because of the factors that caused the sadness in the first place. Sadness can be the result of loss, helplessness, or disappointment, among many other things. It is important to remember, though, that sadness is one of the most common and natural human emotions, and is something that will ultimately help us appreciate our happy times.
suggests exercise can be an effective treatment for depression because it’s a natural mood booster and releases feel-good hormones. However, for some people, exercise or a gym can trigger anxiety and fear. If that’s the case for you, look for more natural ways to move, such as walking around your neighborhood or looking for an online exercise video you can do at home.

Do your best to not be this way. Instead, choose to accept your diagnosis and to take the medications and other therapies that have been prescribed for you regularly. Make it a point to talk with your doctor when you are not getting relief as expected or new symptoms develop so that your doctor has a chance to address these concerns. Tell the people that you are close to that you are clinically depressed and ask for their help in overcoming the problem. For instance, your friends can help you resist the urge to withdraw and isolate, and give you feedback as to how you appear to be doing both physically and emotionally. Allow the time necessary for medication therapies to pass before you decide that they aren't working. In general, accept your diagnosis and cooperate as best you can with the people who are trying to help you recover.
There is a danger that, in some people, antidepressant treatment will cause an increase, rather than a decrease, in depression. In fact, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that all depression medications include a warning label about the increased risk of suicide in children and young adults. The suicide risk is particularly great during the first month to two months of treatment.
ECT involves the application of a brief electric current to carefully selected sites on the scalp. These electric currents, which are administered by a psychiatrist and anaesthetist, produce a minor seizure in the brain. Prior to the procedure, the person is given a short-acting general anaesthetic and a muscle relaxant to reduce awareness of the procedure and to prevent a physical seizure.
Try to notice good things. Depression affects a person's thoughts, making everything seem dismal, negative, and hopeless. If depression has you noticing only the negative, make an effort to notice the good things in life. Try to notice one thing, then try to think of one more. Consider your strengths, gifts, or blessings. Most of all, don't forget to be patient with yourself. Depression takes time to heal.
A complete physical and psychological diagnostic evaluation by professionals will help the depressed person decide the type of treatment that might be best for him or her, including if they are in need of treatment for a physical condition that is causing or contributing to their depressed mood. However, if the situation is urgent because a suicide seems possible, having loved ones take the person to the emergency room for evaluation by an emergency-room doctor is essential. If the patient makes a suicide gesture or attempt, call 911. The patient might not realize how much help he or she needs. In fact, he or she might feel undeserving of help because of the negativity and helplessness that is a part of depressive illness.
DISCLAIMER: The information contained herein should NOT be used as a substitute for the advice of an appropriately qualified and licensed physician or other healthcare provider. This article mentions drugs that were FDA-approved and available at the time of publication and may not include all possible drug interactions or all FDA warnings or alerts. The author of this page explicitly does not endorse this drug or any specific treatment method. If you have health questions or concerns about interactions, please check with your physician or go to the FDA site for a comprehensive list of warnings.
Focus on behaviors. If the person is reluctant to seek help, then don’t try to convince the person that a mood disorder is causing the problems. Instead, talk about their behaviors and the ways in which treatment can help. For example, after you have listened and sympathized with the person’s feelings, try to agree on wellness goals (e.g., consistent sleep and feeling less irritable). Then, try to assign some action steps that you can agree on to reach these goals (e.g., after two weeks, if the person does not improve, you will set up a medical evaluation).
We are learning more about the interactions of the neurochemicals, the chemical messengers in the brain, and their influence on depression. Moreover, researchers now study new categories of neurochemicals, such as neuropeptides and substance P. As a result, we will soon be able to develop new drugs that should be more effective with fewer side effects. We are also learning startling things about how maternal stress early in pregnancy can profoundly affect the developing fetus. For example, we now know that maternal stress can greatly increase the risk for the fetus to develop depression as an adult.
Focus on behaviors. If the person is reluctant to seek help, then don’t try to convince the person that a mood disorder is causing the problems. Instead, talk about their behaviors and the ways in which treatment can help. For example, after you have listened and sympathized with the person’s feelings, try to agree on wellness goals (e.g., consistent sleep and feeling less irritable). Then, try to assign some action steps that you can agree on to reach these goals (e.g., after two weeks, if the person does not improve, you will set up a medical evaluation).
Light therapy—This treatment has been proven effective for people with seasonal affective disorder. It involves sitting near a special kind of light for about half an hour a day. Light therapy should not be done without first consulting your doctor because there are side effects to this treatment. It is being researched for use in other kinds of depression as well.

Depressive signs and symptoms not only include negative thoughts, moods, and behaviors but also by specific changes in bodily functions (for example, excessive crying spells, body aches, low energy or libido, as well as problems with eating, weight, or sleeping). Neurovegetative signs are the changes in functioning associated with clinical depression. This means that the nervous system changes in the brain are thought to cause many physical symptoms that result in a decreased or increased activity level and other problems with functioning.

Patients generally tolerate SSRIs well, and side effects are usually mild. The most common side effects are nausea and other stomach upset, diarrhea, agitation, insomnia, and headache. However, these side effects generally go away within the first month of SSRI use. Some patients experience sexual side effects, such as decreased sexual desire (decreased libido), delayed orgasm, or an inability to have an orgasm. Sexual side effects occur less often with newer SSRIs like vortioxetine and vilazodone, compared to the older medications in this category. For those patients, especially for whom anxiety is a prominent symptom of depression, the addition of buspirone may help enhance the effectiveness (augment) the effect of the SSRI while decreasing or eliminating sexual side effects. Uncommonly, some patients experience tremors, hair loss, or gradual weight gain with SSRIs. The so-called serotonergic (meaning caused by serotonin) syndrome is a serious neurologic condition associated with the use of SSRIs, usually when given in high doses or in combination with another SSRI. High fevers, seizures, and heart-rhythm disturbances characterize serotonergic syndrome. This condition is very rare and tends to occur only in very ill psychiatric patients taking multiple psychiatric medications.


Tricyclic antidepressants – Tricyclics are known for causing more side effects than other types of antidepressants, so they are unlikely to be prescribed unless other medications are ineffective. Examples include amitriptyline (Elavil), desipramine (Norpramin), doxepin (Sinequan), imipramine (Tofranil), nortriptyline (Pamelor), and protriptyline (Vivactil).

Other alternatives include drinking special teas or taking supplements. The properties of green tea and chamomile tea give them a calming effect, and some have found success drinking St. John’s Wort tea to treat depression. It can also be taken as a supplement. While there is no proof that St. John’s Wort improves depression symptoms, fish oil and SAM-e are supplements with a proven impact.
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